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December 29, 2016 00:08

sarcoma |Symptoms and treatment of sarcoma

sarcoma - a disease that involves malignant tumors of various localization.Let's look at the main types of sarcoma, the disease symptoms, treatment and prevention.

Sarcoma is a group of malignant neoplasms.The disease begins with the destruction of the primary connective cells.Due to the morphological and histological changes, starts developing a malignancy, which contains elements of the cells, blood vessels, muscles, tendons and other.Among all forms of sarcoma, malignant especially on account for about 15% of tumors.

See also: Treatment of sarcoma

main symptoms of the disease, manifested as swelling of a body part or assembly.Sarcoma affects: smooth and striated muscle, bone, nerve, fat and fibrous tissue.The type of the disease depend on methods of diagnosis and treatment methods.The most common types of sarcomas:

  • Sarcoma body, soft tissues.
  • uterine sarcoma and breast.
  • sarcoma of bone, neck and head.
  • Retroperitoneal sarcoma lesions of muscles and tendons.

Sarcoma affects connective an

d soft tissue.In 60% of the disease, the tumor develops in the upper and lower extremities, 30% on the body and only in rare cases, sarcoma affects the tissues of the neck and head.The disease occurs in both adults and children.In this case, about 15% sarcoma - a cancer.Many oncologists believe sarcoma rare type of cancer that require special treatment.There are many names of the disease.Names depend on the tissue in which they appear.Bone sarcoma - osteosarcoma, Kaposi's cartilage - chondrosarcoma and loss of smooth muscle tissue - leiomyosarcoma.

ICD-10 code

sarcoma ICD-10 - is the classification of diseases for International cataloger Tenth Revision diseases.

code of the International Classification of Diseases ICD-10:

  • C45 Mesothelioma.
  • C46 Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • C47 Malignant neoplasm of peripheral nerves and autonomic nervous system.
  • C48 Malignant neoplasm of retroperitoneum and peritoneum.
  • C49 Malignant neoplasm of other types of connective and soft tissue.

Each item has its own classification.Let's consider, that means each of the categories of the International Classification of Diseases sarcoma ICD-10:

  • Mesothelioma - malignant neoplasm originating from the mesothelium.Most often it affects the pleura, peritoneum and pericardium.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma - tumor develops from blood vessels.The peculiarity of tumors - the appearance of spots on the skin of red-brown color with pronounced edges.The disease is malignant, so a threat to human life.
  • Malignant neoplasm of peripheral nerves and autonomic nervous system - in this category are lesions and diseases of the peripheral nerves of the lower limbs, head, neck, face, chest, hips.
  • Malignant neoplasm of retroperitoneum and peritoneum - soft tissue sarcoma affecting the peritoneum and retroperitoneal space, causing thickening of the abdominal cavity.
  • Malignant neoplasm of other types of connective and soft tissue - Sarcoma affects the soft tissue at any part of the body, causing the appearance of cancer.

Causes Kaposi sarcoma

The reasons are varied.The disease may be due to the influence of environmental factors, trauma, genetic factors, and more.Specifying the reasons for the development of Kaposi's simply impossible.But, have identified a number of risk factors and causes that often provoke the development of disease.

  • Hereditary predisposition and genetic syndromes (retinoblastoma, Gardner's syndrome, Werner syndrome, neurofibromatosis, a syndrome of pigment multiple basal cell skin cancer).
  • Influence of ionizing radiation - infection of the tissue to be exposed to radiation.The risk of cancer increases by 50%.
  • herpes virus - one of the factors in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • limfostazom upper limbs (chronic form), developing on the background of radial mastectomy.
  • injuries, wounds, festering, the impact of foreign bodies (splinters, chips, etc.).
  • Polychemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy.Sarcomas appears in 10% of patients undergoing this type of therapy, and 75% after organ transplant operations.

Types Kaposi sarcoma

Types depend on the localization of the disease.Depending on the type of tumor, using certain diagnostic and therapeutic methods.Let's look at the main types of sarcoma:

  1. Sarcoma of the head, neck bones.
  2. Retroperitoneal neoplasms.
  3. uterine sarcoma and breast.
  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
  5. soft tissue of the affected limb and torso.
  6. desmoid fibromatosis.

Sarcomas arising from bone hard tissue:

  • Ewing's sarcoma.
  • Sarcoma Parostalnaya.
  • Osteosarcoma.
  • chondrosarcoma.
  • retikulosarkome.

Sarcomas arising from muscle, fat and soft tissue:

  • Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Fibrosarcoma and skin sarcoma.
  • liposarcoma.
  • soft tissue and fibrous histiocytoma.
  • synovial sarcoma and dermatofibrosarcoma.
  • neurogenic sarcoma, neyrofibrosarkoma, rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • lymphangiosarcoma.
  • Sarcomas internal organs.

sarcomas Group consists of more than 70 different species variants of the disease.Sark, distinguish and malignancy:

  • G1 - low degree.
  • G2 - average degree.
  • G3 - high and very high.

Let's consider in more detail certain types of sarcomas that require special attention:

  • Alveolar sarcoma - occurs most often in children and adolescents.Rarely metastasizes, and is a rare type of tumor.
  • Angiosarcoma - affects the skin and blood vessels from growing blood vessels.There is in the internal organs, often after exposure.
  • dermatofibrosarcoma - kind histiocytoma.It is a malignant tumor arising from connective tissue.Most often affects the body, grows very slowly.
  • Extracellular chondrosarcoma - rare tumor arising from cartilage tissue, localized to the cartilage and bone grows.
  • hemangiopericytoma - a malignant tumor of the blood vessels.It has the kind of sites and most often affects patients under 20 years.
  • Mezenhimoma - a malignant tumor that grows out of the vascular and adipose tissue.It affects the abdominal cavity.
  • fibrous histiocytoma - a malignant tumor that is localized on the extremities and closer to the body.
  • schwannoma - a malignant tumor that affects the nerve sheath.Developed independently, rarely metastasizes, affects deeper tissues.
  • Neyrofibrosarkoma - develops from Schwann tumors around the processes of neurons.
  • Leiomyosarcoma - emerges from germs of smooth muskulaturnoy tissue.Quickly spread through the body and is an aggressive tumor.
  • liposarcoma - arises from adipose tissue, localized on the trunk and lower limbs.
  • lymphangiosarcoma - affects the lymphatic vessels, usually occurs in women who have undergone mastectomy.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma - arises from the striated muscles, developing both adults and children.

There is a category of sarcoma without further characterization.This category includes:

  • KS - usually occurs because of the herpes virus.It often occurs in patients receiving Immunosuppressive and HIV-positive.The tumor develops from the dura mater, hollow and parenchymal organs.
  • Fibrosarcoma - appears on the ligaments and muscle tendons.It commonly affects the feet, at least - the head.The tumor is accompanied by sores and actively spreads.
  • epithelioid sarcoma - affects the peripheral portions of the limbs, in young patients.The disease spreads actively.
  • Synovial sarcoma - occurs in the articular cartilage and around the joints.It may develop from synovial membranes of the vagina muscles, and spread to the bone.Because this type of sarcoma, a patient is reduced locomotor activity.Most often it occurs in patients of 15-50 years.

stromal sarcoma

stromal sarcoma - a malignant tumor that affects the internal organs.Generally, stromal sarcoma affects the uterus, but the disease is rare, occurring in 3-5% of women.Only differs from sarcoma cancer of the uterus - is the disease process of metastasis and treatment.Assumes the appearance of a sign of sarcoma - the passage of radiation therapy for the treatment of pathologies in the pelvic area.

stromal sarcoma mainly diagnosed in patients between the ages of 40-50 years, with menopause, sarcoma occurs in 30% of women.The main symptoms of the disease manifest themselves in the form of bleeding from the genital tract.Sarcoma is painful due to the increase of the uterus and compression of its adjacent organs.In rare cases, stromal sarcoma, asymptomatic, and recognize it only after a visit to the gynecologist.

spindle cell sarcoma, spindle cell sarcoma

composed of spindle-shaped cells.In some cases, histological examination, this type of sarcoma confused with fibroids.Tumor sites have dense texture, with a cut fiber structure is visible white and gray.Spindle cell sarcoma appears on the mucous membranes, skin, serous integument and fascia.

Tumor cells grow irregularly alone or beams.They are located in different directions relative to each other, intertwined and form a ball.Dimensions and location of various sarcomas.With early diagnosis and rapid treatment has a positive outlook.

malignant sarcoma

malignant sarcoma - a swelling of the soft tissues, ie the pathological education.There are several clinical signs which combine malignant sarcomas:

  • Localization deep muscle and subcutaneous tissues.
  • Frequent relapses and metastasis in lymph nodes.
  • asymptomatic tumor growth for a few months.
  • Location sarcoma in pseudocapsule and frequent germination beyond.

malignant sarcoma will recur in 40% of cases.Metastases occur in 30% of patients, and most commonly affect the liver, lungs and brain.Let's look at the main types of malignant sarcoma:

  • Malignant fibrous histiocytoma - swelling of soft tissue, localized in the trunk and extremities.During the ultrasound, the tumor has no clear contours may adjacent to bone or cover the blood vessels and muscles tendons.
  • Fibrosarcoma - malignant tumor of connective fibrous tissue.As a rule, located in the region of the shoulder and hip, in a soft tissue thickness.Sarcoma develops from the intermuscular fascial structures.It metastasizes to the lungs and occurs most often in women.
  • liposarcoma - malignant sarcoma of the adipose tissue with a lot of varieties.It occurs in patients of all ages, but most often in men.It affects the limbs, thigh tissue, buttocks, retroperitoneum, uterus, stomach, spermatic cord, mammary glands.Liposarcoma can be single and multiple at the same time developing in several parts of the body.The tumor grows slowly, but can reach very large sizes.The peculiarity of this malignant sarcomas that it does not grow into the bone and the skin, but may recur.Tumor metastasizes to the spleen, liver, brain, lungs and heart.
  • Angiosarcoma - malignant sarcoma of vascular origin.It occurs in both men and women, aged 40-50 years.It is localized in the lower limbs.The tumor located blood cysts, which are a hotbed of necrosis and hemorrhage.Sarcoma is growing very quickly and is prone to ulceration, may metastasize to regional lymph nodes.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma - a malignant sarcoma develops from the striated muscles and takes the 3rd place among malignant soft tissue lesions.Usually it affects limb muscles develop in thickness as a node.On palpation with soft dense texture.In some cases, the causes of hemorrhage and necrosis.Sarcoma is quite painful, it metastasizes to the lymph nodes and lungs.
  • Synovial sarcoma - a malignant tumor of the soft tissue, occurs in patients of all ages.As a rule, localized to the upper and lower extremities, knee, foot, hip, calf.The tumor has a shape node circular shape, bounded by the surrounding tissue.Inside the cysts of various sizes are education.Sarcoma recurs and can let metastases even after the course of treatment.
  • malignant neuroma - malignancy occurs in men and in patients with von Recklinghausen disease.The tumor is localized in the lower and upper limbs, head and neck.Rarely metastasize, may metastasize to the lungs and lymph nodes.

pleomorphic sarcoma

pleomorphic sarcoma - a malignant tumor that affects the lower limbs, trunk and other places.In the early stages of development, the tumor responds poorly to the diagnosis, therefore found to achieve more than 10 centimeters in diameter.Education is a lobed, tight knot, reddish-gray color.The site contains a zone of hemorrhage and necrosis.

pleomorphic fibrosarcoma recurs in 25% of patients, it metastasizes to the lungs in 30% of patients.Due to the progression of the disease, the tumor often causes death within one year from the date of discovery of Education.The survival rate of patients after the discovery of this education is 10%.

polymorphocellular Kaposi sarcoma

polymorphocellular - is a relatively rare type of stand-alone primary sarcoma of the skin.Tumor develops, usually at the periphery of the soft tissues, but not in depth, surrounded by an erythematous halo.During growths ulcerate and become similar to gummy syphilides.Metastasizes to the lymph nodes, it causes an increase in spleen, and with soft tissue squeezed causes severe pain.

According to the results of histology, is the alveolar structure, even when the reticular carcinoma.The connective mesh present round and spindle-shaped cells of embryonic type, similar to megakaryocytes and myelocytes.At the same time deprived of blood vessels elastic fabric and thinned.Treatment only operative polymorphocellular sarcoma.

Undifferentiated sarcoma

Undifferentiated sarcoma - a tumor, which is based on the results of histology is difficult or impossible to classify.This type of sarcoma is not associated with certain cells but is usually treated as a rhabdomyosarcoma.So, to malignant tumors of uncertain differentiation include:

  • epithelioid and alveolar soft tissue sarcoma.
  • clear cell tumor of the soft tissue.
  • intimal sarcoma and malignant mezenhimoma type.
  • desmoplastic sarcoma cell round.
  • with perivascular epithelioid cell tumor differentiation (miomelanotsitarnaya sarcoma).
  • extrarenal rhabdoid tumor.
  • extraskeletal Ewing's tumor and myxoid chondrosarcoma extraskeletal.
  • neuroectodermal tumor.

histiocytic sarcoma

histiocytic sarcoma - a rare malignancy, aggressive nature.Let's look at some of them.