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December 29, 2016 00:08

Chemotherapy for cancer |Indications , contraindications, and side effects of chemotherapy

Chemotherapy for cancer - a treatment that involves administering to the patient a variety of drugs.

Furthermore, after chemotherapy, a patient waiting a number of side effects - loss of hair, bleeding, nausea and others.Side effects are due to the effect of drugs on healthy cells.Another feature of chemotherapy in cancer is that for the full treatment necessary to take a few courses as one-time injection of medications will not give the desired effect.

Benefits of chemotherapy:

  • full or partial destruction of cancer cells.
  • Control cancer - chemotherapy drugs inhibit the growth of cancer cells, allowing you to control the process of their distribution, and in time to destroy the metastatic lesions.
  • Chemotherapy eases the painful symptoms of the disease.In the treatment of cancer is reduced in size and volume, and therefore cease to compress the adjacent organs and tissue does not cause pain.
  • Chemotherapy may be used as the only method for treating cancer or combined with radiation therapy or s
    urgery.

Does chemotherapy for cancer?

Does chemotherapy for cancer - a topical issue for patients diagnosed with cancer.The efficacy of chemotherapy depends on the stage of the cancer and its location, age of the patient and the individual characteristics of the organism.Chemotherapy can be used as the only treatment or combined with surgery and other therapies, which significantly increases the chances of recovery.

drugs for chemotherapy are selected individually for each patient.The choice of drug and the effectiveness of treatment depends on factors such as the type of cancer previously conducting such treatment, the presence of chronic medical disorders and diseases.The scheme of treatment depends on the purpose of treatment.Thus, chemotherapy may be used to control cancer cells, alleviate symptoms of the disease or their complete destruction.

To Chemotherapy helped cure disease, drugs are prescribed courses with breaks.So, for example, after a week's course of therapy, the patient is prescribed a month break and then spend a few more repeated courses.The breaks are needed to create new healthy body cells and tissues.

To make sure that chemotherapy helps the treating oncologist, periodically conducts surveys and taking tests.The patient can determine the effectiveness of the treatment and on the state of health.Some patients mistakenly believe that if after treatment started strong adverse symptoms, the treatment is effective.But this is not always the case, as each patient's individual response to drugs.But the effectiveness of treatment can be determined only after several cycles of chemotherapy.

Indications for chemotherapy

Indications for chemotherapy depend on the type of cancer and its stage.Treatment is carried out in cycles, alternating with periods of recovery.Chemotherapy can last from three to six months.There are several factors that affect the indications for chemotherapy, let's look at them:

  • Features of the cancerous tumor, its size, stage of development, growth rate, degree of differentiation, the expression of the degree of metastasis and the involvement of regional lymph nodes, hormonal status.
  • individual characteristics of the patient, such as age, localization of malignant cancers, the presence of chronic disease, the condition of regional lymph nodes, and general health.
  • Possible complications and positive effects of chemotherapy.The doctor evaluates the risks of complications and the likelihood of effective treatment.

It is from the above factors depend indications for chemotherapy.But do not forget that the indications for this type of treatment in each case are different.Thus, chemotherapy procedure never designate non-invasive for patients with cancer or in the case where the probability of metastasis is very small or absent.In these cases, patients were hormone therapy.Chemotherapy is shown in all cases of lymph node involvement.At the same tumor size does not matter.

main indications for chemotherapy:

  • Cancers, which occurs only in remission after a course of chemotherapy (leukemia, hematological malignancies, rhabdomyosarcoma, and other horionkartsinotsy).
  • metastasis prevention and an adjunct to other therapeutic methods of cancer treatment.
  • Translation tumors in operable condition for more effective treatment, that is, the complete removal of the cancer formation.

Contraindications chemotherapy

Contraindications chemotherapy, as well as indications for treatment depend on the stage of the cancer, tumor location and individual characteristics of the patient.So the main contraindications to chemotherapy is:

  • intoxication.
  • Metastasis to the liver.
  • high level of bilirubin.
  • of brain metastases.
  • Cachexia.

attending oncologist after a survey and study of test results to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of chemotherapy or prohibits the use of this method of treatment.

chemotherapy courses of chemotherapy

Courses are individually designed for each patient, depending on the structure of the tumor, stage of development, localization and previous treatment.Generally, chemotherapy is composed of several drugs that are administered in cycles at intervals of 3-5 weeks.Breaks are needed for the body and the immune system to recreate destroyed healthy cells and were able to recover slightly after the drug therapy provided.

  • During chemotherapy, the patient's food practically unchanged, the doctor inserts adjustments, taking into account the used drugs.For example, if a patient is prescribed platinum drugs, you should drink plenty of fluids, but from alcohol completely abandoned.It is also forbidden to use the sauna during the period of chemotherapy.
  • During therapy, the patient should avoid exposure to direct sunlight.It is forbidden to carry out physiotherapy and thermal procedures.
  • courses of chemotherapy increase the risk of colds.However, patients are allowed to take herbal teas, antipyretics, antibiotics and sulfa drugs.
  • During chemotherapy, the doctor takes the patient's regular blood tests, an ultrasound of the liver and kidneys.Women may experience changes in menstrual cycle (irregular periods or lack thereof).Patients may suffer from insomnia and other adverse symptoms of chemotherapy.

number of courses that are necessary to pass the patient, determined by a physician based on medical history.The optimal number of 4-6 himiolecheniya courses.After several courses, the doctor makes a preliminary forecast of the effectiveness of treatment and adjust it if necessary.

regimens

chemotherapy regimens are treatment that is selected individually for each patient.Of course, the chosen drugs scheme does not guarantee a full recovery, but it helps to get rid of the painful symptoms and slow the development of cancer cells.Chemotherapy can be carried out either before surgery or after surgery.If the patient is suffering from diabetes, obesity, or other chronic diseases, the scheme is chosen with great care, taking into account the data of the anamnesis.

effective chemotherapy regimen should possess the following properties:

  • level of side effects should be minimized or so that the patient was able to move them.
  • formulations must be carefully matched to their interaction did not cause the side effects, but rather increased the therapeutic effect.
  • Matched chemotherapy scheme must destroy all kinds of cancer cells.In this case the cancer cells do not have to adapt to the drugs.

chemotherapy scheme may be represented as a combination of drugs, and the efficacy of such a scheme will be from 30 to 65%.Chemotherapy can be carried out, and one drug, the effectiveness of such treatment would be from 25 to 60%.Let's look at the most common chemotherapy regimens.

regimens

used drugs

cancer

ABVD

Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastin, Dacarbazin

granulomatosis

BEACOPP

Cyclophosphamid, Etoposid (phosphat), Adriamycin, Procarbazin, Vincristin, Bleomycin, Prednisolon

strong expression granulomatosis

CMF

Cyclophosphamid, Methotrexat, 5-Fluoruracil

Cancerbreast

CHOP

Cyclophosphamid, Hydroxydaunorubicin, Vincristin, Prednisolon

Malignant lymphoma

COPP

Cyclophosphamid, Vincristin, Procarbazin, Prednisolon

T-cell and B-cell lymphomas

CVI

Cyclophosphamid, Vincristin, Prednisolon

lymphomas, sarcomas of soft tissues, skeletal sarcoma

ECF

Epirubicin, Cisplatin, 5-Fluoruracil

tumors breast or stomach, granulomatosis, lymphoma

FLP

5-Fluoruracil, Folinsäure, Cisplatin

breast cancer, colon cancer

5FUFS

5-Fluoruracil, Folinsäure

breast cancer, colon cancer

MCF

Mitomycin, Cisplatin, 5-Fluoruracil

Bone sarcoma, stomach cancer, colon, esophagus, pancreas, liver, breast, uterus, bladder and anal cancer

MTX

Methotrexat

lymphoblastic leukemia, tumor urothelial cancer, breast cancer, nongranulomatous lymphoma, bonesarcoma

PCV

Procarbazin, Lomustin, Vincristin

Skeletal sarcomas

TEC

Docetaxel, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamid

breast cancer of the stomach, nongranulomatous lymphoma, sarcomas

PEB

Cisplatin, Etoposid, Bleomycin

Tumors of the testes, ovaries, lung, cervix, urinary bladder.

chemotherapy in breast cancer

Chemotherapy for breast cancer is a complex method of treatment.The problem of this method is to slow down the process of development of malignancy in the mammary gland cells.Typically, the treatment using cytotoxic drugs.Chemotherapy can be used as a stand alone treatment or used before or after surgery.Chemotherapy can prevent recurrence of the disease and stop metastasis.

chemotherapy in lung cancer

Chemotherapy lung cancer is aimed at the complete destruction of cancer cells.Treatment with anticancer drugs can be used both as a monotherapy and enter the therapeutic anticancer complex.Chemotherapy involves the administration of cytostatic several courses droplets.Drugs for chemotherapy are selected individually for each patient.Himiolecheniya In addition, patients should receive therapy to reduce side effects from the drugs used.

chemotherapy in gastric cancer

chemotherapy in gastric cancer has several directions.Thus drugs may be used after radical surgery for postoperative intraperitoneal therapy prior to surgery or as a treatment for metastatic stomach cancer.Chemotherapy is carried out in a hospital, under the supervision of an oncologist.Drugs administered intravenously and used in tablet form.The effects of chemotherapy are destructive to the entire body, so the period of rehabilitation after such treatment can last for several years.

chemotherapy in ovarian cancer

chemotherapy in ovarian cancer used to stop metastasis and prevent recurrence of the disease.Himiolechenie can be used before and after radical surgery, to slow tumor growth, alleviation of painful symptoms and reduction of surgical treatment.Chemotherapy drugs are administered intravenously, taken orally or injected into the peritoneal cavity.There are many different drugs and treatment regimens, each of which has a certain effectiveness and side effects.The oncologist selects the optimal treatment option for high chances of the patient's full recovery.

chemotherapy for rectal cancer

Chemotherapy for cancer of the rectum takes place in a hospital, under the supervision of the oncologist-chemotherapist.The doctor selects a treatment regimen determines how much chemotherapy is necessary to conduct and supervise the patient during treatment.The drugs can be administered intravenously, but most often orally, ie through the mouth.If chemotherapy is used in the early stages of the disease, it allows you to completely arrest the oncologic process and prevent its recurrence in the future.

chemotherapy in stage 4 cancer

chemotherapy in stage 4 cancer - is a method of treating an irreversible process of uncontrolled proliferation and proliferation of tumor cells throughout the body.Correctly composed chemotherapy regimen extends the life of the patient, and significantly improve it.The survival rate of patients after chemotherapy for stage 4 cancer is between 30-70%, and life expectancy of six months to five years.It all depends on the type of tumor, presence of concomitant diseases and the degree of destruction of vital organs.

key indicator of the effectiveness of chemotherapy in cancer stage 4 is a five-year survival.Under this concept mean patient survival after diagnosis - cancer stage 4.Let's look at the effectiveness of chemotherapy on cancer stage 4, at different localizations of cancer.

  • Lung Cancer

When chemotherapy at stage 4 lung cancer, five-year survival rate among patients is 10%.Furthermore chemotherapy, radiotherapy can be conducted to relieve symptoms of the disease and reduce tumor size.This reduces the size of the tumor and destroy metastases to vital organs.

  • Liver cancer

chemotherapy for liver cancer, stage 4 is effective for 6% of patients.At this stage, himiolechenie allows the destruction of part of metastases.But classical chemotherapy is not effective in the fight against the disease source.

  • Stomach cancer

The disease during the course of chemotherapy in the last stage, has a high favorable prognosis, 15-20%.For the treatment of palliative chemotherapy is used, which allows to stabilize the flow of cancer.

  • Cancer

pancreas On stage 4 cancer, chemotherapy is not effective.Five-year survival ranges from 2-5%.Chemotherapy is used to facilitate the patient's condition, reducing the size of the tumor, which compresses the neighboring organs and tissues, as well as for the destruction of metastases.