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December 29, 2016 00:05

Adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon |Symptoms and treatment of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

most urgent problem in the field of oncology - cancer of the colon and rectum.One variety of this cancer is adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon.In this case we are talking about the development of the pathological process in the glandular tissues of the sigmoid colon.

In this article:

  • Causes Symptoms Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • forecast

Sigmoid colon - is one of the sections of the colon to the left in the lower abdomen.It is called the sigmoid due to some form of arrangement.It starts after the colon and rectum moves while making multiple bends.

To date, the problem of cancer comes to the fore in many countries around the world.Developed and implemented the latest methods of diagnosis and treatment of various types of cancer, as the number of cases of cancer problems is growing, as well as with similar diseases are beginning to face the younger group of people.

reasons for adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

Unfortunately, unequivocal opinion about the causes of cance

r does not exist.But you are likely to talk about the factors that influence the development of tumors, including malignant.In case of problems with the large intestine current problems are dietary habits, lack of use of fiber, fresh fruits and vegetables, smoking, drinking, eating carcinogenic foods, excessive use of household chemicals.Moreover, matters such genetic predisposition to disease, nerve frequent stresses, the use of large amounts of drugs.It is also an important factor of influence on the state of the intestine in general, and the colon in particular, is a sedentary lifestyle, sedentary activities.All this hinders the normal operation of the intestine, breaks peristalsis, leading to stagnation of food of the masses, but also violates the blood supply to the bowel or other regions.Especially it can touch it sigmoid colon due to the nature of its shape and location.

Symptoms of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

Risk of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon is very high.This is mainly due to the fact that it takes place in the initial stages completely asymptomatic.A more complex stages of cancer symptoms appear, which in themselves do not directly indicate the occurrence of tumor in the intestine.Such symptoms adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon is called monotone.Even if many of them manifest themselves, doctors can not only observe them to send a cancer, but does not bind them together.Because an important focus today is on preventive measures.In particular, the passage of regular preventive research to, even when detecting adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, could arrest the disease at its earliest stages.

When symptoms only beginning to emerge, the patient felt general weakness, nausea, fatigue comes quickly, can disturb pains in the stomach, there is a periodic violations of the chair, pale skin.In the future may appear poor appetite, weight loss, and a perversion of taste sensations of taste or habits.

In the later stages of development of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon are emerging signs that indicate the localization problems - in the feces appear unnatural impurities, blood goes general intoxication of the organism, thereby increasing the liver, appears yellowish tintthe skin, increases the stomach.The most difficult and distant symptoms become massive bleeding in the intestines, intestinal obstruction, intestinal inflammation.

moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

When it comes to cancer, the number of its characteristics also made use of a concept such as the level of differentiation of cancer cells.Also, the level of differentiation is also called index Glisson.According to this indicator isolated four types of tumors such as highly differentiated, moderately differentiated, poorly differentiated and undifferentiated tumor.The lower the Gleason, the lower the level of cell differentiation.

When it comes to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, which means that the cells of tumors markedly different from the cells of the tissue, which was the emergence of tumors.Although the difference is not so great that it can accurately identify the origin and center of the tumor and the tissue that forms it.Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma is characterized by not very intensive growth, the risk of metastases too small, at least in the initial stages of the disease.But in any case, even if found in the sigmoid colon tumor is a moderate level of differentiation, that is no reason to delay treatment or choose some most gentle treatment.Since the risk is associated with this form of disease is very high.Firstly, the growth of the tumor is still present.The fact that he is not as fast as in undifferentiated or poorly differentiated cancers, does not say that it is quite an alarming rate.Second, the probability of metastasis rather large and depends on the condition of the tumor itself as well as from potential precipitating factors.The latter can include any external stress, age and comorbidities, and even the treatment of the tumor itself.

highly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

highly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon is one of the least dangerous variants of this tumor.This is due to the fact that cells of low-grade tumors in their structure and properties differ little from those of the tissue from which they were formed.And thus have relatively low levels of pathogenicity.Furthermore, if the level of cell differentiation quite high, such a tumor characterized by slow growth, rarely gives metastases.If we talk about changing the cells themselves, the main (and only one) change them with high-grade adenocarcinoma is increasing the size of the cell nuclei.

highly differentiated adenocarcinoma quite successfully treatable.Since this tumor maloagressivna, it is possible to choose the most favorable conditions for the operation, extremely low need for support therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.Recurrences of these tumors are also quite rare.Nevertheless, spending constant monitoring is necessary.Especially in those cases where the patient is at risk for the disease.

Poorly adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

Poorly adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, as well as other low-grade tumor is extremely aggressive.In the first place, it is characterized by a fairly rapid growth, because of the discovery of the problem until the behavior of specific operational action the situation may have changed.Furthermore, if the tumor cells are undifferentiated, it is quite difficult to determine exactly what tissue or even organ which one is the starting point for the development of cancer.Itself such a tumor in the process of development often gives metastases.In addition, there is a possibility that the operation was to remove low-grade tumors can cause the appearance of metastases.Because of these operations, and prepare the patient for them special attention.

spite of all the danger of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, sometimes surgery can not be recommended.This happens in cases where the risk of formation of metastases in surgical intervention higher risk of developing the tumor itself (for example, if the tumor growth rate is relatively low for this type of tumors).Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma difficult uncontrollable, but nevertheless even with such a variety of tumor should not take hasty decisions op its treatment, you need to take the rest of the patient in mind, the general state of the patient the possibility of transferring certain types of treatment.

diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon diagnosed as on the basis of complaints of the patient, and with the help of hardware methods of research and inspections.Symptoms of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon rather indirect, but at the slightest suspicion that the problem may be with the large intestine, it is worth referring to the proctologist.

easiest and the initial diagnostic method may become palpation.That is, the doctor feels the hands rectum and sigmoid to a certain depth.In the presence of a tumor there such inspection will reveal it.More complicated technically, but more informative is this method of study as a sigmoidoscopy.This procedure involves a visual inspection of the cavity of the rectum and lower third of the sigmoid colon.Rectoromanoscope used for this device, which is a tube, one end of which is a lighting device.First, air is supplied through rectoromanoscope gut cavity to expand, and then entered the eyepiece for viewing.It allows not only examine the internal organs, but also in identifying suspicious entities take a biopsy from the ulcer site.

Another informative method of diagnosis is a barium enema.This fact of x-ray pictures of the intestine.For this rectally administered a contrast agent.This method of administration allows for expansion of the intestine due to its dense filling.In this first study circuit colon (including sigmoid), its shape, location, size, characteristics.After that, after the partial emptying of the bowel, and have less extension studying the possible pathology, relief of the intestinal mucosa.Also, after this you can fill the air intestine for more detailed study.This method is called a double contrast.As a result of research carried out as a survey and sighting shots.

also popular today method of research is a colonoscopy.At its core, it is similar to sigmoidoscopy, but the main difference is that you can explore the entire colon with colonoscopy.That is, in this case, it is more informative, as it allows to inspect all of the sigmoid colon, and not only its bottom third.As with sigmoidoscopy, it is possible to conduct a biopsy and removal of small entities.The procedure is also performed under visual control.In addition, the current will conduct ultrasound is widely used today bowel diagnostics.

methods of diagnosis, which implies the possibility to visually assess the state of the intestine are more likely to be able to identify adenocarcinoma in the early stages of its occurrence.And also the fact that during such methods can screening tissue samples can more accurately judge the state of health of the patient.

treatment of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

Regardless of the severity of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, the main method of its treatment is surgery.

also used and chemotherapy.It can be mono- and polisostavnoy.But in this case it acts as an auxiliary method.As it was proved by its low efficiency in this disease.Chemotherapy may be applied either before surgery or after.It is also a popular method of cancer treatment is radiation therapy.But in the case of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon is used quite rarely.This is due to several factors.Firstly, there is a risk of perforation, ie through damaged intestine, secondly, it is proved that this type of cancer as adenocarcinoma has a very low sensitivity to the effects of radiation therapy.

When surgical resection is performed, that is, the removal of part of the sigmoid colon.This type of cancer is adenocarcinoma, is growing rather slowly, and the metastasis is unlikely.Because the disease is detected at a fairly early stage, you can carry out the operation, which not only lead to a complete cure, but will manage the removal of only a small part of the intestine.If surgery occurs at rather late stages of the disease, the operation substantially reduces the risk of complications.

prevention of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

Talking about the prevention of a disease, it is worth referring to the reasons for its occurrence.In the case of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, mainly preventive measures will be aimed at, in order to minimize the area of ​​the bowel irritation.Sigmoid colon has a number of features in connection with the arrangement.It is located directly in front of the rectum, it is curved, because of which stagnation of feces may occur.Thus the contents of the intestine pushes against the walls, creating an unnecessary irritation.This can be avoided in the case with intestinal peristalsis okay.EMU may well contribute to an active lifestyle, exercise.It is also essential for proper operation of the large intestine plays an intake of fiber.This fresh and leafy vegetables, fresh herbs, apples, root vegetables.Eating salads with raw vegetables and fruits.The human body itself does not split the fiber, but do symbiotic bacteria of the large intestine.Because for proper operation is necessary to maintain the balance of microflora.This can help to dairy products, drinking enough water, healthy food.

play an important role and a more generalized factors.Avoid strong nerve stress, eliminate bad habits, to minimize the use of carcinogenic products, monitor the amount of food consumed (overeating also negatively affect the bowel and all internal organs).

But the main means of preventing adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon is regular screening.When preventive examinations is possible to detect changes in the intestine, which may not yet be adenocarcinoma, but still require treatment.

forecast adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

forecast adenokrtsinomy sigmoid colon, as well as many other diseases, largely depends on when it was discovered the disease, what the specifics of its development, what are the chances of maintaining the situation after treatment.

In general, if a sigmoid intestine problems manifest themselves early enough often it occurs in cases where the patient is used to pay attention to their digestion, the forecasts are pretty good.Adenokratsionoma - rather studied to date a variety of tumors.Furthermore, there is a large amount of current treatments.Conducting surgery possible without large incisions in the abdomen.

However, if the disease occurs in young adults, the prognosis worsens.This is due to the fact that the body in young dividing cells more active, and therefore will develop more rapidly swelling.

Also of great importance is how many abnormal cells sprouted in the intestinal tissue.Penetrated deeper pathological tissue, the prognosis is worse.

important role played by the presence of metastases.The fewer the adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon has a better prognosis.

course, directly affect the forecast size of the tumor, concomitant diseases, general health.