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December 26, 2016 00:01

Symptoms of thyroid cancer

main symptoms of thyroid cancer in the early stages do not give a clear clinical picture of the disease, and the majority of oncologists say they are non-existent, since this pathology develops without specific signs.

Symptoms of thyroid cancer: non-specific manifestnye

nonspecific symptoms of thyroid cancer - these are signs that may occur at a variety of other diseases and to diagnose them is not enough.These most likely the manifest (obvious) signs specialists include:

  • education on the neck of the movable or connected to the tissue seal skin (its rate of increase is different, fast enough in some cases);
  • swollen lymph nodes located in the lower third of the neck, as well as in the area of ​​the larynx and trachea;
  • discomfort and pain in the neck and behind the ears (not always occur, but only during the germination of the tumor into adjacent tissue or compression of the nerve fibers of the follicular epithelium of the prostate);
  • fever in the absence of any signs of respiratory and other inf
    lammatory diseases;
  • appearance hoarseness, cough, and difficulty in swallowing and with stridor (compression of the trachea) and shortness of breath with little physical exertion;
  • dysphonia (loss of voice due to pressure of the tumor on the laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve);
  • appearance of vascular mesh on the neck at a pressure of tumors in the parathyroid blood vessels.

Seen from patients referred with similar complaints, there is a suspicion of cancer doctors immediately.Though it must be emphasized that the formation of a node in the thyroid gland only in one case out of twenty turns sign oncology.

Symptoms of thyroid cancer: latent

In the early stages thyroid cancer develops in the latent (hidden) form.And it will be useful to have an idea of ​​what the symptoms of thyroid cancer are detected in patients during examination endocrinologists.

symptoms of papillary thyroid cancer

  • initial nodal education is found on one side of the thyroid gland, has a rounded shape with a palpable microscopic projections in the form of buds, the formation can be mobile or fixed at the offset discomfort or pain in most cases are not available;
  • on ultrasound can be detected tumor invasion into the capsule gland and the surrounding tissue;
  • assembly increase is slow, often does not exceed the diameter of the formation of 10 microns, but can be up to 40 microns or more;
  • increase in cervical lymph nodes from tumors, enlarged nodes are quite soft;
  • when the tumor in one lobe of the thyroid gland often seen opposite her share of defeat;
  • elevated serum tumor marker level - prohormone thyroid thyroglobulin;
  • increased content of CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) in the blood;
  • functional disorders of the thyroid gland, as a rule, lacking.

For accurate diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer symptoms do not have absolute evidential nature without immunochemical studies of blood and fine needle biopsy of the thyroid gland and histological examination punctate.

symptoms of follicular thyroid cancer

  • thyroid gland is greatly increased, the increase is diffuse;
  • sclerotized tissue cancer, noted the appearance in it calcified lipid-protein structures (psammous cells);
  • solid tumor mass (sόlidnoe) - round shape or in the form of cords (trabecular);
  • tumor is composed of abnormal A-cells (follicular cells) of the thyroid gland with thyroid colloid inclusion;
  • in most cases encapsulated tumor, that is, has a shell;
  • observed extrathyroidal invasion - tumor cells invade the surrounding soft tissue and blood vessels;
  • lymph nodes in the neck are hypertrophied;
  • elevated thyroglobulin levels and CEA serum;
  • thyroid dysfunction manifested as hypothyroidism - thyroid hormone levels decrease.

manifest symptoms of follicular thyroid cancer - pain in the tumor, cough, hoarseness, weakness, hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), weight loss - appear with the progression of the disease.

symptoms of medullary thyroid cancer

  • solitary tumor (single node), affects the parenchyma gland and causes it to fibrosis;
  • tumor formed parafollicular C-cells of the prostate (producing the hormone calcitonin);
  • CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) in the blood serum is very high;
  • calcitonin blood level increased (more than 100 pg / ml);
  • in prostate tissue amyloid is present - glycoprotein compound synthesized malignant cells;
  • high blood parathyroid hormone parathyroid glands (the appearance of metastatic medullary cancer).

most important diagnostic sign of medullary cancer is increased secretion of calcitonin.An excess of this hormone causes symptoms of medullary thyroid cancer, a reduction in muscle strength, increased blood pressure, diarrhea, feeling of heat and redness of the skin.

As oncologists, endocrinologists say, this type of cancer develops faster than others, giving metastasis in the lymph nodes of the neck, the trachea and the surrounding muscle tissue as well as the lungs, skeletal bones and liver.And the very first distant metastasis affects the liver.

symptoms of relapse of thyroid

Obvious symptoms of recurrence of thyroid cancer - with malignancy tissue residues after its removal or regional lymph nodes - are found only in the course of the regular examination of patients with the help of ultrasound and blood tests.

The presence of recurrent thyroid cancer suggest:

  • detection of calcitonin in the blood;
  • improvement of thyroglobulin in the blood;
  • high blood levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), promotes cell proliferation.

To visualize the cancer affected cells of any organ after treatment of papillary or follicular carcinoma patients undergo scintigraphy with the introduction of radioactive iodine isotopes.Malignant tissue cells iodine capture for recurrent thyroid cancer that affects the scanner monitor.

As you have seen, thyroid cancer has many features of its manifestation.That is why it is so important to pay attention to the slightest changes in health conditions that may be associated with this endocrine gland.Early diagnosis of any cancer can achieve success in its treatment, and malignant thyroid tumors - is no exception.The main thing - to try to prevent the development of disease to the stage where thyroid cancer symptoms become apparent.