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December 20, 2016 00:06

hypertrichosis

Hypertrichosis - is excessive local or widespread growth of hair on the areas of skin where hair distribution should not be.In the literature you can find synonyms Hypertrichosis (hypertrichosis) - politrihiya, virility syndrome, although many doctors attribute these diseases different types of the same category.

Hypertrichosis - an abnormal hair growth in women, men and even children can get sick and virilism only female representative, when body hair is one of the symptoms, but not the only one.

Hypertrichosis both androgen-dependent phenomenon takes many forms and can be caused by several reasons, its official classification as follows:

ICD-10 L68, Hypertrichosis:

  • L 68.0 - Hirsutism L 86.1 - hypertrichosis vellus hair acquired
  • L 86.2- Localized hypertrichosis
  • L 68.3 - Politrihizm
  • L 68.8 - Other hypertrichosis
  • L 68.9 - hypertrichosis, unspecified

Causes of hypertrichosis

Causes of hypertrichosis depends on its shape, which is etiologically defined as follows:

  • Congenital hypertrichosis:
    • Congenital universal - embryo.
    • Congenital local.
  • Acquired hypertrichosis:
    • interscapular.
    • Puberty.
    • Climacteric.

Generalized causes of hypertrichosis are caused by genetic factors.As a result of mutations in the epithelial cells change their structure, which acquires the properties of the epidermis.In turn, genetic mutation may be associated with an abnormal process of gestation, when the pregnancy is difficult, as the cause of the transformation of the epithelium can become infectious diseases in the first trimester.A newborn symptoms of excessive body hair may not occur, but the potential hidden danger remains: the child can be a carrier of the mutated gene, and hypertrichosis will appear in the next generation.

Unlike congenital abnormal growth of hair acquired hypertrichosis provoke other reasons, for example, constant exposure of irritation to the skin, such as shaving, bad habit to pull hairs, mechanical friction and so on.Furthermore hairiness develops as a consequence of some medical groups receive - glucocorticosteroids, in tablet form, and the outer (ointments, creams).

Here are the most common factors and causes that provoke hypertrichosis: •

  • Congenital genetic disease, including abnormal development of bone or mental system when the body hair is one of the clinical signs of the disease.
  • Endocrine Pathology - the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, ovaries, thyroid gland.
  • imbalance hormonal system (pregnancy).
  • Changes in the hormonal system associated with menopause.
  • brain tumor, breast, ovary.
  • Epilepsy.
  • Medical factors - corticosteroids, streptomycin-androgen drugs.
  • metabolic disorders as a result of starvation (anorexia).
  • Mechanical irritation - shaving, plucking the hair.

more information on the types and causes of hypertrichosis is presented in Table

type and form of the disease

reason provocation

Congenital hypertrichosis (vellus)

Genetic mutations epithelialcell

Acquired hypertrichosis vellus

menacing symptom of cancer, according to statistics, 95-98% of surveyed found oncopathology

Medical hypertrichosis

Reception diaksozida, cyclosporine, dinitrohlorbenzidina, corticosteroids,minoxidil, difensipropenona, psoralen, gormonosoderzhaschie ointment.
Reception anabolic steroids

Hypertrichosis induced by mechanical, traumatic factors

  • Constant exposure to hot termorazdrazhiteley - thermal procedures (warming patches, mustard, mud baths, paraffin baths)
  • PUVA therapy
  • Cryotherapy
  • Ultravioletexposure
  • Waxing, shaving, plucking
  • trichotillomania (compulsive desire to hair pulling)

Symptomatic hairiness

Hypertrichosis may be one of the symptoms of porphyria, dermatomyositis, traumatic brain injury, fetal forms of alcoholism,

syndromic hypertrichosis

  • syndrome Achard-Thiers (a combination of diabetes and Cushing)
  • syndrome Cushing's (hyperadrenocorticism)
  • Morgagni syndrome (giperstomoz skull, hypertrichosis, virilism)
  • disease Pfaundlera-Hurler (glycosaminoglycans anomaly)
  • syndrome lipoatroficheskogo diabetes (Berardinelli syndrome)
  • Cornelia de Lange syndrome,
  • newborn anomaly Stein-Leventhal syndrome (pathological polycystic ovaries)
  • syndrome Seckel
  • syndrome trisomy E

Hypertrichosis caused by venerealdiseases

Syphilis

hirsutism and hypertrichosis

Although hirsutism and hypertrichosis are ranked according to ICD-10, they are different types of hair distribution.The first thing that distinguishes these two anomalies is that hirsutism may suffer only women, and in most cases it is associated with androgenic factors (body hair of male type), whereas hypertrichosis polietiologichen and does not know the sex or age barriers.How to distinguish hirsutism from hypertrichosis?Firstly, it is necessary to distinguish between vellus and terminal hair.Fluff - a soft, almost imperceptible hairs, terminal - usually dark, hard and long.In short, the growth of vellus and terminal simultaneously in a large number in unusual parts of the body, as well as where they grow as if it is necessary, but they are growing too actively - politrihiya (hypertrichosis).Hirsutism often manifests itself in the growth of terminal hair androgenchuvstvitelnyh, diagnostically defined 9 areas.

criteria differences:

Symptom

hypertrichosis, politrihiya

Hirsutism

Paul

Men, women, children

Women

Zone

9 diagnostic areas:

  • Chin
  • upper lip
  • Belly
  • Chest
  • Shoulders
  • Loboc
  • Hips
  • Back
  • Hands

depending on the level of androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone)

hair distribution may be on the areas of the body that are independent of androgen

hair distribution in the androgen-dependent areas of the body

Thus, hirsutism - is a purely female problem of excessive hair growth and hypertrichosis may relate to any person, regardless of sex or age, although it can also be differentiated from the national characteristics of certain genotypes, which is peculiar to the increased growth of body hair.

How to inherited hypertrichosis?

established many kinds of congenital hypertrichosis, which appear immediately after the baby into the world of today, genetics.Vellus hair distribution newborn due to inheritance, both parents or one of them already has a similar problem.Unlike normal vellus cover kids vellus hypertrichosis is characterized by a thick, visible, pigmented scalp.Localized congenital hypertrichosis on the neck, trunk, sometimes on the face (forehead).Pathological congenital hypertrichosis fetalis lanuginosa often accompanied edentulous (dystrophy teeth), nervous system disorders and developmental disabilities (mental retardation, microcephaly).There is also a congenital form of vellus body hair - hypertrichosis congenita, an inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with high penetrance (a measure of the genotype).

As hypertrichosis inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern?

types of inheritance may be different.Autosomal dominant characteristic is the fact that modified (mutant) gene is transformed into an active sign back in heterozygous form, so that a child inherits an altered form of the gene (allele) is still at the conception of one of their parents.Inheritance of hypertrichosis in an autosomal dominant variant suggests that the likelihood of body hair as well as for newborn boys and girls.Unlike hypertrichosis foetalis lanuginosa such vellus hypertrichosis does not imply serious consequences for the health of the newborn, and does not affect the mental, physical and reproductive development.The disease is associated with excessive hair growth can occur in every generation, the possibility of the situation that the child "hairy" inherit their parents' feature is 50%.There are other options for succession, when the level is low penetrance, whereas abnormal hair growth can occur in the newborn.It is also possible to "debut" body hair later in life, such as puberty or menopause in women.

Currently there are more than 20 hereditary forms of hypertrichosis, local and total, including the defective genes NTS2, HCG, CGH, X, when body hair combined congenital anomalies - fibromatosis gums, skeletal dysplasias.

When and how inherited hypertrichosis, what is the probability of inheritance?

  • If the race has a sufficient number of children with an inherited body hair, hypertrichosis occurs in every generation.
  • Women and men inherit hypertrichosis in equal proportions.
  • Hereditary hypertrichosis can transmit both the mother and the father.
  • The probability that a child will inherit hypertrichosis, if it is passed through the generations, is 50%.

Symptoms hypertrichosis

Signs of body hair do not need a specific and detailed description, hypertrichosis symptoms, as they say, visible to the naked eye.They can occur in both men and women, but if for the first excessive hairiness in some degree is a certain symbol muskulinnosti, for the beautiful ladies this is a problem, if not the tragedy of life.

hypertrichosis symptoms in women:

  • increased growth of hair on the chin.
  • pilosis nasolabial folds.
  • hair growth on the chest, in the breast - presternalny (prothoracic) in combination with depressed, sunken sternum.Symptom may indicate neurofibromatosis.
  • Excessive hairiness legs and arms.
  • Hair growth in the lumbar region of the spine combined with cleft (spinal pathology).Hair in the sacrum grow in the form of a beam, which is also called "beam of a Faun."
  • pilosis buttocks.
  • pilosis pubes male pattern.
  • Excessive hair growth can be accompanied by the weakness of the limbs, loss of sensitivity.
  • Excessive growth of eyebrows (fusion).
  • Birthmarks with tufts of hair, body hair nevi, including giant Becker melanosis.Pigment giant nevus in 80% followed by congenital anomalies - edentulous, hip dislocation (spina bifida).

In turn hypertrichosis can also be a signal of dangerous diseases.Body hair, appears in adulthood in 90% of cases points to the hidden onkoprotsessa, ringworm, undiagnosed traumatic brain injury.

should be noted that Hypertrichosis may be classified in categories:

  1. heterochrony - pituitary abnormality, when children appear premature secondary sex characteristics in the form of excessive hair growth (beard, mustache, hair in the pubic area, and so on).
  2. heterotopia - a rare congenital syndrome, caused by intrauterine diseases, developmental abnormalities.When a child heterotopia body hair acquires a total character, often combined with congenital hip dislocation, edentulous.
  3. heterogeneous - body hair of male type, which refers to hirsutism.Although hirsutism and is considered an independent pathology, it is classified as a type of hypertrichosis.

Congenital hypertrichosis

True congenital hypertrichosis are rare, the symptoms of vellus body hair visible immediately after birth and disappear on their own throughout life.One type of congenital hypertrichosis - lanuginoznoe body hair from lanugo - hair.Lanugo normally cover the entire fruit, starting with 27-28 weeks of gestation, a 40-1 week hairs disappear.When genetic abnormalities a child is born with an excess Pushkova hair, often accompanied by concomitant congenital abnormalities.Congenital hypertrichosis may be local, that is, the hairs grow in certain areas of the body - the back, lower back, face, forehead and body hair can be generalized, that is, literally cover the whole body.A bunch of hair in the sacrum (the beam of a Faun) is a sign of spinal pathology - cleft vertebral arches (spina bifida).

Congenital hypertrichosis classified thus:

  • hypertrichosis congenita - congenital universal hypertrichosis in an autosomal dominant manner.
  • hypertrichosis fetalis - embryonic hypertrichosis, which is combined with other congenital abnormalities.
  • hypertrichosis congenita localisata - local lumbosacral hypertrichosis or hair pigment nevus (Faun beam).

most favorable in terms of the forecast of further development and the quality of life - universal congenital hypertrichosis.

Hypertrichosis Hypertrichosis from

most women women is associated with hormonal factors and age periods:

  1. Excessive hair growth can "start" in puberty.Hypertrichosis often first appears in women in this age, age limits are wide enough from 7 to 15 years.Hair localized in the breast, the neck, the back, the face, the sacrum, lumbar.The so-called hypertrichosis pubertalis verginum is a sign of hormonal changes, but it can also be a sign of a more serious condition - tuberculosis, diseases of the ovaries, adrenal glands.The diagnosis put quite difficult due to nonspecific hypertrichosis as a secondary symptom.
  2. Hypertrichosis young women aged from 16 to 22-24 years, when it was showing increased activity pushkovye rather than terminal hair.They are located on the legs (shin), abdomen, thighs, at least in the chest.This may be due to the abnormal operation of the adrenal gland, thyroid gland, or the ovary.
  3. Hypertrichosis climacteria - a fairly common phenomenon that accompanies menopause.Hypertrichosis in women aged 45 years is most often seen on the face - the hair grows on the chin, above the upper lip (mustache).After adjustment menopausal hirsutism may persist and even intensify, which is a symptom of a lack of function of the endocrine system.

Also worth mentioning androgenozavisimy syndrome - virilism.The disease is clearly up to its name - virilis is male.Masculinization beautiful women may be due to various reasons, but it is obvious that the main role in which plays a hormone imbalance.Excessive testosterone as the androgenic hormone leads to a syndrome of hyperandrogenism.In this process, take a direct part ovaries and adrenal glands, rarely virilism triggered a metabolic imbalance when taking steroids (anabolic steroids).Hyperandrogenism syndrome may have a functional nature, and be associated with the tumor process.Functional virilism - a malfunction of the adrenal cortex, usually with pituitary disease - Cushing (hypercortisolism).One symptom of this pathology is hypertrichosis.