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December 20, 2016 00:05

Follicular thyroid cancer : symptoms and treatment of follicular thyroid cancer

shows modern statistics, the share of oncological pathology of the thyroid gland in the world up to two per cent of the total number of cancers.This article will try to learn as much as you can about the disease, which occupies the second place in frequency konstatiruemogo diagnosis of malignant manifestations in the human body.It is a disease that bears the name of follicular thyroid cancer.

In this article:

  • reasons
  • Stage
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • forecast

reasons for follicular thyroid cancer

Approximately 15% of all cases, determination of malignancy is localizedconsidered in this article the human body, it relates to the nature of follicular tumors.But so as to be more effective therapy can be carried out to get as much as possible accurate picture of the pathological changes and identify the source of "failure."

Causes Thyroid today follicular cancer set, yet fails.But a role in its development, doctors discharged:

  • iodine deficiency in the body of the patient.
  • Fall human immune status, the insolvency of his body in opposition to the negative impact.
  • exposure to ionizing radiation.It can be worn as an external character, and have an internal nature of income (for example, entering into the protocol of treatment of radioactive iodine).The bottom line is that this element tends to accumulate in the thyroid gland, causing later development of cancer.Subjected to the influence of the child may even in utero.In adults the probability of failure and provoke the development of tumors in such a situation is less, since a higher dose.
  • not excluded heredity factor.
  • As established experts, often the precursors of the disease in question were neoplasms benign nature.Prolonged
  • X-ray irradiation of the head and neck, and that stimulates cells of the zone to mutation.
  • Although this pathology was diagnosed, and in very young children, the main age of patients exceeds the age of forty.
  • There are a number of specialties that fall into the list of the most dangerous in the light of the problem.Physicians
  • suggest that cause follicular thyroid cancer can be prolonged stress, which resides in the patient's body.Stress leads to a decrease in the body's defenses, which "opens the way to" different kinds of pathologies.
  • presence of bad habits only aggravate the situation, making the risk of developing cancer is much higher.Carcinogens found in tobacco and alcohol adversely affect the immune status of the person, reducing the opposition to the appearance of atypical cells.
  • multinodular goiter.

But the above sources, and is not a complete list - this is only a medical assumptions about disease etiology.Symptoms of follicular thyroid cancer

This pathology was observed in more than people who turned forty years abroad, but not immune to her and the children.Although the percentage of patients is small enough, but the defeat of the trend alarming.

this pathology observed a low rate of progression, so follicular thyroid cancer symptoms begin to appear fairly late:

  • On the front side of the neck gradually appear nodular tumors.
  • Rarely, but still possible to observe the growth of the dimensional parameters of the lymph nodes.
  • man begins to feel obstacles when swallowing.
  • appear difficult to inhale and exhale.
  • There is chronic fatigue.
  • Gradually, there is pain in the affected area.
  • These metamorphoses lead to breaking vote.
  • There are problems with sleep.
  • may appear tingling in the limbs, seizures.
  • producing viscous mucus production.
  • There hyperthyroidism development.
  • person becomes apathetic.
  • There is excessive sweating.
  • deterioration of appetite, leading to weight loss.
  • Metastasis begins to be recognized in the later stages of the disease.

stages of follicular thyroid cancer TNM

International Doctors Association was accepted ranking system cancers, which divides detail the clinical picture of the disease and the severity of the symptoms exhibited different levels of pathology.Stages of follicular thyroid cancer tnm made up of three basic parameters: T (Lat tumor - a tumor.), N (Latin nodus - node.) And M (lat metastasis - metastasis.).It is the state, as well as the presence or absence of abnormalities in the data elements, and generates a stage of disease progression.

The magnitude of tumor:

  • T0 - the tumor is not determined.
  • T1 - tumor size is less than 2 cm in some cases being a fractional division: T1a - dimensional parameters of one centimeter and T1b - one to two centimeters..
  • T2 - tumor larger than 2 cm but less than 4 cm in settings
  • T3 -.. Tumor size greater than 4 cm neoplasm does not go beyond the thyroid gland.Also in this category include any tumor that has a minimum presence abroad capsule.
  • T4 - This category is subdivided into:
    • T4a - education of any size, with penetration into the surrounding tissue: laryngeal nerve, trachea, esophagus, larynx, and other tissues.
    • T4b - education, invading the carotid artery, fascia predpozvonochnikovoy area vessels retrosternal area.

is worth noting that if the cancer has remained nedifferntsirovannoy, then it is automatically assigned to the T4 stage, not depending on its size parameters.

presence of metastases in the surrounding lymph nodes:

  • NX - not possible to estimate with metastases.
  • N0 - no invasion.
  • N1 - has a local metastasis:
    • N1a - infestation was found in the zone VI lymph.
    • N1b - differentiated invasion of chest or neck lymph nodes.This can be seen as a unilateral invasion, and two-way loss.

detection of metastases in more distant areas of the body:

  • MX - is not possible to assess the existence of such infestations.
  • M0 - no such invasion.
  • M1 - such infestation is diagnosed.

defined the above, the oncologist may include a picture of the considered pathology to one of four stages:

  • first - tumor size up to 2 cm, the absence of metastases, while nespitseficheskie cells not exposed to decay.The most favorable prognosis in the stage of cancer.
  • second - the size of tumors 2 to 4 centimeters (swelling does not cross the border of the capsule), no metastases.
  • third - tumor more than 4 cm, the output of the capsule border (without metastases) or tumor of any size with local metastases in the adjacent cervical lymph nodes.Without decay and infestation in more distant bodies.
  • fourth A - Any largest tumor, but the presence of invasion beyond the borders of the capsule, differentiated metastases in the cervical and / or thoracic lymph nodes.But there is no damage to other organs.
  • fourth largest B- any tumor, presence of invasion beyond the borders of the capsule with germination in the direction of the cervical spine and adjacent large blood vessels, and lymph nodes.Metastasis to other organs was observed.
  • fourth C - invasion shows widespread destruction, touching and other organs.The most severe prognosis of this pathology.

Based on the TNM system is determined by the stage of the disease, allowing you to see the forecast for its abolishment.

follicular thyroid cancer 1 degree

Normally considered gland tissue are composed of structural components of a spherical configuration, called follicles.If malignancy include and follicles, and the disease is called follicular cancer.

follicular thyroid cancer diagnosis differs 1 degree low level of iodine in the body of the patient.It is noted an acute shortage of this element.The tumor shows "moderate aggressiveness."The prognosis for its diagnosis is generally favorable.But this result is achieved by slightly heavier than the papillary type of pathology.In this case, the removal of the affected breast is fully.

first degree of the disease manifests itself in small nodules of tumors.Once they grow in size, symptoms of the disease begin to appear gradually.The intensity of the symptoms is increasing slowly.This may take more than one year.Metastases are completely absent.

follicular thyroid cancer 2 degrees

Each type of malignant lesions of the thyroid gland has its own individual characteristics.Follicular thyroid cancer is caused by 2 degrees the appearance of metastases.At the same dimensional parameters of tumors and the state in which there are nearby lymph nodes, in determining the extent of the disease do not play, how or whether significant influence.

follicular thyroid carcinoma grade 3

With the deterioration of the patient, the disease moves to the next stage of pathological manifestations.Follicular thyroid carcinoma grade 3 has the following characteristics:

  • Tumor dimensional characteristics can be of any size.
  • neoplasm is not limited to the boundaries of the capsule, and goes beyond it.
  • Dimensions nearby lymph nodes are normal.
  • regional metastasis is diagnosed.
  • Remote invasion absent.

able to finish, but another option when there is no metastasis, but significantly increased lymph nodes.

But the most unfavorable in the forecast is the fourth stage, which is evidenced by the lost time, and in the later stages of diagnosis.This stage is ascertained, when the scale of metastasis cover quite extensive areas, striking and distant organs.The size of the tumor itself no longer has value.

follicular papillary thyroid cancer

In my practice, oncologists, based on the results of histological examination, divided pathology reporting on nature:

  • papillary adenocarcinoma, which is characterized by a low rate of progression for limited regional metastasis.
  • Follicular adenocarcinoma, having just a small speed of development.
  • follicular papillary thyroid cancer - attributed to highly differentiated type of cancer.This category of disease occurs more frequently (up to 80% of all thyroid cancer cases) than the next two.However, they show a good sensitivity to acute treatment.
  • Medullary carcinoma is rarely diagnosed.Presumably it is hereditary.
  • Anaplastic (undifferentiated) category of tumors - a low percentage of diagnosis.It features high speed progression.The highest percentage of deaths.

follicular type of development has a more aggressive course of compared to papillary carcinoma.Papillary type of cancers diagnosed more frequently, especially in children and patients of pre-retirement and retirement age.

lymph node metastasis in papillary carcinoma stated significantly more often than in the other case.While follicular carcinoma is characterized by a greater probability of germination of the tumor in the vascular components.It is the degree of infestation is directly dependent on the forecast of mortality.

for follicular carcinoma is characterized by damage nearby tissues and distant organs of the human body.This can lungs, bone tissue, epidermis, brain, and others.

poorly differentiated thyroid follicular cancer

Also follicular and papillary malignant type of this pathology, which belong to the high-grade course of the disease, doctors - oncologists diagnosed cell - low-grade follicular thyroid cancer.

cases define it are rare.The frequency of this form of the disease does not exceed 4 - 7% of all thyroid cancers.

This type of pathology is characterized by high rate of progression.The patient starts to complain about the accelerated growth of tumors volumes, which can already be seen with the naked eye.He has problems with swallowing and breathing.Gradually there is a change of voice.

Already after two - four months from the beginning of the disease, a person begins to feel the pathological symptoms and seek advice from a qualified technician.

Visual inspection of the front of the neck can be observed asymmetry of its forms.On palpation outline the formation of dense, clear and not blurry.By pressing the patient feels growing pain.

For poorly differentiated type of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland include medullary carcinoma and anaplastic tumor.

forecast this type of disease is much worse than in the case of well-differentiated cancer, since the progression rate is so high that after diagnosis oncologists, sometimes, the patient is given only a few months or even weeks of life.

diagnosis of follicular thyroid

cancer if the person appeared negative symptoms or abnormalities in health status observed at the next routine inspection, the patient gets a referral to a specialized oncology institution, where the doctor - oncologist prescribe the total package required for a full examination of the state ofpatient health measures.

In general, diagnosis of follicular thyroid cancer include:

  • Consultation otolaryngologist and doctor - oncologist with their examination of the patient, his medical history screening.
  • Ultrasonography allows to visualize the region of interest, which makes it possible, without causing much damage to the human body, to identify nodules of tumors, which were not detected by palpation.
  • X-ray computed tomography - a method does not violate the integrity of the tissue layer by layer allows study of the internal structure of the thyroid gland.
  • Magnetic - resonance imaging - a technique medical examination that allows to obtain images of the examined organ in a 3D image and a series of X-rays.can be used more than once, during the entire period of examination and treatment of the patient Due to record this information on the computer's hard disk, the information survey.
  • Taking sighting biopsy of the tumor to determine its benign or malignant nature.Upon receipt of the material is carried out histological and immunochemical study.This method gives an answer to the question of the oncologist the need for surgical intervention.
  • Radioisotope examination will determine the isotopic components exhibited a defect in their accumulation.But despite the fact that the tumor is diagnosed.Differentiate using this technique her character (benign or malignant) will not work.This technique is very effective in the plane of the establishment of the presence of metastases, their scale and location.But this fact is justified only if the modified cells are capable of accumulation of iodine-containing chemicals, as well as the absence of thyroid tissue cells, which had been previously excised.
  • hosts a wide spectrum of different biochemical studies.But it is not so.