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December 20, 2016 00:05

Adenocarcinoma of the lung : causes, symptoms , diagnosis, treatment

Adenocarcinoma of the lung is considered to be one of the most common forms of non-small cell lung cancer.This disease occurs in about 40% diagnosed malignant lung neoplasms.Presumably, it occurs in the cell krupnobronhialnyh structures, but when it detects it is defined as the peripheral lung cancer asymptomatic.

  • Causes Symptoms Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • forecast

Causes lung adenocarcinoma

According to statistics, most often the disease is diagnosed in male patients.This can be explained by the peculiarities of professional activity (work in hazardous environments, inhalation of chemicals and toxic substances), and a greater tendency to bad habits.In female patients often show only certain types of the disease - such as bronchopulmonary adenocarcinoma form.

Contributing factors of tumor formation is considered to be:

  • long smoking history (there is evidence that everyday inhalation of tar and nicotine increases the risk of tumors in the 20-30 times);
  • alcoholism;
  • environmental features of the area of ​​residence (located near large industrial facilities, highways, as well as poor indicators of water, air, soil);
  • error in the diet (high intake of carcinogens - semi-finished products, fast food, fat, fried foods);
  • lasting presence in areas with polluted air (dust, soot, etc.);
  • work related to the production and exploitation of asbestos;
  • regular radon from entering the lungs, due to the peculiarity of the geographical location;
  • radioactive lung damage;
  • chronic infectious and viral diseases of the lungs;
  • genetic predisposition.

Most diagnoses of adenocarcinoma of the lung is put patients after 60 years, so the age can also be counted among the factors predisposing to the disease.

also a secondary cause of the disease can be regarded as an uncontrolled long-hormonal medicine for the treatment of other disorders in the body.

Symptoms of lung adenocarcinoma

Unfortunately malignancy in most cases do not reveal themselves to any specific symptoms, and adenocarcinoma of the lung - is no exception.

From nonspecific signs of cancer include the following:

  • decrease or disappearance of appetite;
  • general weakness, fatigue, decreased performance;
  • drowsiness;
  • weight loss;
  • progressive anemia.

Later symptoms increases, increases, there are new features:

  • irrational cough, often with a small amount of sputum;
  • shortness of breath during physical activity, and eventually at rest;
  • painful and uncomfortable condition in the chest;
  • swollen lymph nodes under the jaw, armpits, etc .;
  • slight increase in body temperature;
  • repetitive lung disease, which is extremely difficult to treat.

If developed metastases - tumor daughter cells that are spread throughout the body - the symptoms will depend on whether, in any particular organ will metastases.

differentiation of lung adenocarcinoma

Cancerous tumors may differ according to various criteria and parameters, so they are often divided into certain types, species and subspecies.

For example, the distinctive features of malignant cells from normal to tumor differentiation applied several categories.By the way, highly differentiated and normal cellular structure virtually indistinguishable.

The term "high-grade adenocarcinoma of the lung," explains the fact that the intracellular transformation consists only in changes in the size of the cell nucleus - there is lengthening.This suggests that this form of the disease for a long time does not show any symptoms until they grow to a certain size.Non-specific symptoms, of course, may be present - a general weakness, apathy, loss of interest in food, emaciation, erythropenia.

highly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung is found in 60% of all cases of malignant lesions of the pulmonary system, and most often in male patients.This pathology can take the form of nodules or large size of the tumor.Acinar can occur in the form (with a predominance of the glandular structure) or papillary form (with papillary structure).And then, and another for inclined to increased formation of mucus.

As we said above, the disease does not manifest itself at first.Some time later, there are the first signs:

  • allocation of large amounts of mucus, possibly with pus or blood particles;
  • cough, increased temperature indicators (not reacting to the reception of conventional antipyretics);
  • dyspnea is under load and at rest.

moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung resembles the highly differentiated nature of the disease process.However, in this case, there is a marked change in cell structure.Now they are relatively easily distinguished from normal, as the number of cells with atypical structure and those that are dividing phase, has been steadily increasing, and they can not help but notice.

addition, moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the other more severe, with a high degree of risk and consequences of comorbidities.This tends to form a tumor to metastasize, mostly to the next lymph flow and lymph nodes.Interestingly, in patients younger than 30 years with widespread metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma is almost not observed.

Poorly adenocarcinoma of the lung characterized by primitive cell development.Such structures are difficult to compare with any body tissue, so the structure of evaluation and development of the mechanism of this tumor are difficult.Nevertheless, poorly differentiated tumor has the highest degree of malignancy.The tumor grows very quickly and is already in the initial period of its development, it can spread throughout the body.Of course, this form is considered the most unfavorable adenocarcinoma irrespective of the growth stage.

Stages flow lung adenocarcinoma

The effectiveness of therapeutic interventions depends on the spread of the disease throughout the body.On this basis distinguish 4 stages of tumor process flow:

  • in the first stage of malignancy tissue does not leave the limits of the lung;
  • second stage small tumors up to 60 mm, but the penetration is observed metastases in the lymph nodes;
  • in the third stage of the tumor completely covers the entire share pulmonary metastases in the lymph nodes are present;
  • in the fourth stage there is the defeat of the second light, and detect metastases in distant organs are located.

Due to the paucity of symptoms often revealed adenocarcinoma of the lung 4 stages.However, this pathology can be treated successfully with modern methods.

Diagnosing lung adenocarcinoma

timely conduct diagnostics of malignant tumors makes it possible to make treatment more effective, and in oncology is a very important point.Of course, much depends on the patient, which should just ask for help.

to detect tumors or clarify the diagnosis, the following diagnostic methods:

  • chest X-ray is one of the most popular procedures for the detection of malignant tumors in the lungs.tumors are often found by accident - for example, by carrying out preventive fluorography.
  • computer and magnetic resonance imaging are considered the most modern methods of obtaining information when the doctor can inspect and assess the condition of the respiratory system in different ways.It provides the most complete picture of the disease, with the extent of tumors, proliferation and metastasis.
  • Ultrasonography is also a procedure №1 in the diagnosis of the disease, but its information in oncology somewhat overstated.
  • Bronchoscopic study carried out by a special unit - the endoscope.The device consists of a flexible fiber-optic tube equipped with a video unit and illuminating device.The tube inserted intratracheally and helps to examine the internal state of the trachea with an image displayed on the monitor.
  • study on the content of the blood tumor markers indicate the presence in the body of malignant diseases.
  • biopsy - a very important and fundamental research, without which it is difficult to imagine modern oncology.The method consists in the capture element of the affected tissue with his further research.By sampling you can accurately determine the malignancy process.Material for analysis concurrently with the take bronchoscopy or transthoracic puncture using (which is less desirable and is held only in an extreme case).

treatment of adenocarcinoma of the lung

Treatment of adenocarcinoma of the lung may consist of surgical removal of the tumor, chemotherapy and radiation.Most often, these therapies are used in the complex - a treatment regimen determines the oncologist on the basis of test results and patient studies.

As with other malignancies, the treatment goal - to completely remove the tumor, or, if this is not possible, then to extend the life of the patient, ease his suffering.

Surgery necessarily apply to I and stage II adenocarcinoma, ie, approximately 10-30% of diseases.If metastatic spread to distant organs process has begun, the only rely on the operation is no longer necessary.Additionally, surgery may not be possible if the malignancy is located close to the windpipe, or a patient diagnosed with severe heart disease.

intervention type in the lung is selected depending on the size and location of tumors.For example, the surgeon may remove the section of lung lobe, all share one or all of a lung.Simultaneously with this process are removed and the lymph nodes are affected.

rehabilitation period in postoperative patients occurs is not easy for patients requires careful care, perhaps for several months.At first underwent surgery have difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, chest pain.Elderly patients require a lengthy rehabilitation.

  • Radiation therapy is used before surgery or after it.The essence of radiation - in the application of specific rays that can destroy cancer cells.In most cases, radiation therapy combined with surgery and drug therapy.

Also, instead of the rays can be assigned to brachytherapy.This method represents a kind of radiotherapy where a substance emitting radiation, placed directly to the affected body in the form of granules.The great advantage of this method is that the effects of radiation on the tumor is not outside, that is, it is not necessary to overcome the layers of healthy tissue.With this brachytherapy has far fewer side effects and complications.

Radiation therapy may be used if the patient for any reason refuses surgery or when surgery is impossible or meaningless.Side effects after radiotherapy - is a constant feeling of weakness, fatigue, increase in the degree of susceptibility to infectious diseases, problems with blood clotting.

Chemotherapy with adenocarcinoma of the lung will stop the development of cancer cells, inhibit their division and cause their death.We know more than sixty types of chemotherapy.The most famous among them are the following:

  • Cisplatin Carboplatin
  • Gemcitabine Vinorelbine
  • Paclitaxel Docetaxel.

Most of these drugs are taken not in isolation, but in combination with each other.Medicaments administered in tablet form or in the form of intravenous injections.Calculation of the dose of chemotherapy - a purely medical decision as to determine the exact amount of the preparation is quite difficult: at too low a dose of the treatment will be ineffective and fraught with excessive doses of strong toxicity and the emergence of significant side effects.Usually, the dose is calculated based on the value of POS - the surface area of ​​the patient's body.PPT is calculated individually using a specially derived formula where key indicators are the patient's body weight and height.

also one method of dispensing can be considered as determining the amount of plasma chemotherapy for a certain period of time, with subsequent dose adjustments for optimum effect.So it is possible to calculate the minimum toxic effects of the drug on a background of effective treatment of the tumor.

course of medical treatment usually lasts a few days.At the end of the course the patient is given a break to recover and alleviate symptoms of intoxication, then resume treatment.The total number of procedures is calculated individually.

known that chemotherapy drugs often cause side effects, although doctors assure us that such symptoms can be controlled.What kind of side effects is it?

  • Increased sensitivity to infection - a condition usually manifests itself after a week at the end of the course, reaching a maximum of 2 weeks.After that, the immune system starts to recover and to resume normal treatment.Supervise the process through periodic blood sampling for analysis: if the blood picture is unsatisfactory, further procedures may be postponed.
  • Bruising and bleeding - is the result of blood clotting deterioration by reducing the platelet count.Such a condition is sufficiently serious threat as bleeding tissue can grow into a full bleeding that requires immediate medical attention.
  • Anemia - a very common side effect.Anemia is caused by lowering the level of red blood cells and thus hemoglobin, which manifests constant feeling of fatigue, weakness and lassitude.
  • nausea and vomiting may begin suddenly.In such cases it is necessary to consult a doctor who will prescribe medications that eliminate this problem.
  • stomatitis and sore gums are removed by conventional mouthwash.To avoid unnecessary mechanical injuries of the mouth, should eat pureed food and high-calorie drink enough fluids.
  • Hair Loss - frequent and very unpleasant adverse events, especially for female patients.You can ask your doctor to replace a drug that causes this effect, or to accept and wear a wig or a scarf.In most cases, the scalp is restored after a few months after the last treatment.

adenocarcinoma Treatment is not always the same effect on patients: one ill sensitive to radiation, and the other of these procedures do not cause any adverse effects.Someone suffering from the side effects of drugs, and someone they are ideal.That is why doctors insist on an individual approach to treatment: It is important to listen to the doctor and follow all its recommendations.

Prevention of lung adenocarcinoma

To minimize the risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung, you must adhere to the following rules:

  • refuse smoking.Proved: the more cigarettes a person smokes per day, the greater the chance of developing cancer in the lungs.