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September 20, 2016 23:06

The role of carbohydrates in sports nutrition

high carbohydrate foods are classified according to the type of carbohydrates (simple and complex), in the form of carbohydrates (liquid and solid) or glycemic index carbohydrates (low, medium, high).Classification of carbohydrates according to the "simple" or "complex", "liquid" or "solid" does not reflect the impact of food and liquids rich in carbohydrates for glucose and insulin levels in the blood, and for this classification glycemic index reflects influence.

Glycemic index is used to classify the different types of food by measuring the level of glucose in the blood after their adoption and comparing it with the standard of food or glucose or white bread.This index is calculated by the increase in blood glucose curve after the adoption of the test meal, providing 50 grams of carbohydrates, compared with a similar curve after absorbing the same amount of carbohydrate from a standard food.All tests are carried out on an empty stomach.

Food is divided into vysokoglikemicheskuyu (glucose, bread,

potatoes, porridge for breakfast, drink for athletes), sredneglikemi-cal (sucrose, non-alcoholic beverages, oats, tropical fruit: bananas and mangoes) or nizkoglikemicheskuyu (fructose, milk, yogurt, lentils, cool climate fruit: apples and oranges).There are published by international table glyco-nomic indices for many types of products.

Glycemic index reflects the ability of digestion and absorption of food, rich in carbohydrates.Thus, it is affected by food form (particle size, the presence of whole grain structure and viscosity), the degree of processing and cooking food, the presence of fructose and lactose (both glycemic index low), the ratio of amylopectin and amylose in the starch (rate of digestion of amylose low), the interaction of the protein with starch or starch with the fat, as well as the presence of phytin and lectins.

assumed that can be used to increase the amount of carbohydrates and improve athletic performance manipulation of the glycemic index of various foods and dishes.For example, foods with a low glycemic index may be recommended to use before exercise to maintain the level of carbohydrates.Food rich in carbohydrates with medium or high glycemic index-cal, can be recommended during exercise for carbohydrate oxidation, and after it - to replenish glycogen.

concept of the glycemic index has limitations.This index is based on the same quantity (50 g) of carbohydrate, rather than the average value.Available index values ​​are also largely based on the tests, using one type of product, so the reaction of blood glucose when consumed vysokoglikemicheskih products can be smoothed when combined with nizkoglikemicheski-E products in the dishes.But mixed dishes can apply the weighted average of the glycemic index of carbohydrate-rich foods that make up this dish.

The glycemic index is useful for athletes food choices.However, further research is needed.This code should not be used solely to determine the consumption of carbohydrates and food before the training sessions, during it and after it.Food has other characteristics that are important for athletes such as nutritional value, taste, compact size, price, portability and ease of the body to prepare.Since the selection of food specific to each individual and the type of training, the athletes should choose food according to their nutritional goals.