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December 12, 2016 00:03

contracture

Contracture - limited joint mobility, but with a clear presence in it of motion;full joint immobility defined as joint ankylosis;but only the possibility of punitive movements in a joint called the joint stiffness.

Working classification includes several positions, contracture is divided into: congenital and acquired;active (with the restriction of active movements);passive (with the restriction of passive movements) and active-passive;primary, when the cause of limitation of movement is a pathology in the joint, and the secondary, the restriction of movement disorders caused by the surrounding tissue;restrictions on the type of movement is divided into contracture flexion, extensor leading or abductor, rotary, mixed type.In accordance with the localization of the primary changes is divided into dermatogenic contracture, desmogennuyu, tendogennuyu, myogenic and arthrogenic.According Etiopatogenetichesky basis, distinguish: posttraumatic, post-burn, neurogenic, reflex, immobilization, professional, isc

hemic.

Congenital contracture: torticollis, clubfoot, clubhand;arthrogryposis, etc. -. belong to the category of orthopedic pathology.Acquired contracture occur as a result of local changes in the joint, or surrounding tissues or under the influence of the common factors that lead to muscle atrophy or impairing their elasticity (hysterical contracture of lead poisoning: et al.).Dermatogenic contracture occurs when keloid changes in the skin for wounds, burns, chronic infections, especially specific.Desmogennaya contracture develops when atrophy fascias, aponeuroses and ligaments, often with their continuing trauma, such as Dupuytren's contracture in the hand.Tendogennaya and myogenic contractures developing with scarring in tendons and their sheaths, muscles and surrounding tissues.But there may be other reasons: damage to the posterior group of muscles or peripheral nerve can cause hyperactivity of muscles-antagonists;neuralgia and myositis may form persistent spasmodic contraction of the muscles;with prolonged immobilization in a vicious situation may develop a redistribution of muscle traction, etc..

arthrogenic contracture develops after intraarticular fractures, chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the joints and capsules.The most complex in the pathogenesis of a neurogenic contractures, their diagnosis is the responsibility of neurologists.

limited movement in the joint is quite striking demonstration symptom.

process usually develops slowly, sometimes for years.The surgeon is important to establish the etiology of orthopedic process and direct the patient to a specialist - Orthopaedic Trauma, Combustiology or the department of plastic surgery.For the diagnosis of X-rays produce a joint, preferably in different phases of movement (roentgenocinematography).Protractor determine range of motion.In all cases, the patient should be consulted a neurologist.