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November 27, 2016 00:17

Cleft palate |Symptoms and treatment of cleft palate

Cleft palate - a congenital abnormality of genesis, which is manifested cleft hard and soft parts of the sky, causing the observed relationship of the nasal and oral cavities.

occurrence of defects due to delay coalescence opener with processes of the upper jaw.Pathology rate reaches 0.1% among children born.

Splitting may complete when there is land cleft soft and hard areas or incomplete - when there is only a hole in the sky.Among all the mutations of congenital cleft palate is considered a common anomaly, which is sometimes marked with a split tongue.

The reasons of occurrence of cleft palate include genetic damage that occurs in TVH22 gene.However, there are factors that contribute to the formation of the defect.These include mutagenic effects on the fetus, both on the part of the world, and the body of the future moms.A special role in the occurrence of mutation plays a smoking, drinking alcohol and drug use during pregnancy.

Also do not forget about diseases such as endocrine pathology, me

tabolic disorders and insufficient intake of folic acid.The risk of disease occurrence increases with the presence of toxicity in the pregnant, past infectious pathologies, mental or mechanical injury.

It is worth noting that it was in the first three months of pregnancy, when the fetus is particularly vulnerable, there is a tab structure maxillofacial unit.The negative impact of damaging factors during the first trimester leaves the most significant imprint on the health of the fetus.

Causes of cleft palate

Despite assumptions about the development of a genetic disease, though separately decided to allocate the factors that increase the risk of this disease.Over the years, several studies of predisposing factors have been allocated.These include burdened responsibility when a family history of disease have been observed.If one of the parents in the family has a cleft palate, then the risk of this disease in the baby increases by 7 times in relation to the other guys.

In the case where the parents observed the malformation, the probability of the formation of the baby cleft palate ranges from 10% (if the pathology observed in one of the parents) to 50% (if both).

Causes of cleft palate and is in the way of life of the pregnant because smoking, consumption of alcohol and drugs has a negative impact not only on the formation of cleft palate, but also the development of the whole organism.Statistics indicate that smoking of pregnant from the first to 10 cigarettes per day increases the likelihood of cleavage of the sky 30 times.At the same time, it increases the risk of cigarettes to 70%.

Do not forget about the various diseases of infectious origin, intrauterine infections, concomitant chronic pathology future moms, including infections, sexually transmitted diseases.All these pathological states and disorders of organs and systems are the backdrop for the occurrence of cleft palate.

Of the environmental factors that have a negative impact, it should be noted occupational hazards of both parents, living in areas contaminated with radioactive or chemical exposure.Also it increases the likelihood not only of the anomalies of the maxillofacial department, but also other organs during the first pregnancy after 35 years.The process of gestation goes hard enough for a woman, not counting the possible complications during childbirth.

reasons may be in violation of metabolic processes with the development of obesity, taking drugs in high doses, especially those drugs that are contraindicated during pregnancy.By concomitant factors include insufficient intake of folic acid, the impact of stressful situations with impaired mental and emotional state and toxicosis pregnant.

Considering these factors, we can conclude that the mutation may occur as a result of the harmful effects of many factors, including the breakdown is random.Found through research genes are guilty only in 5% of cases, in connection with which a further search continues.

Signs cleft palate

Since its birth, the signs of a cleft palate may complicate the process of labor, because of the risk of aspiration of amniotic fluid the baby breathing organs.The process of breathing for the baby brings a lot of difficulties, sucking in general almost impossible.

As a result, the child can not fully develop due to insufficient supply of oxygen and the development of cerebral hypoxia.Lack of nutrition also inhibits the growth of the baby, which threatens the development of rickets and underdeveloped organs.These children lag behind their peers, as a physical and mental level is at a lower development.

Feeding a baby with an abnormality requires a special approach, because it requires a special spoon, which is put on the bottle.Thus, we are suffering and hearing, which significantly reduces the self-esteem of the child, not counting the visual defect.

speech formation is difficult since improper growth of teeth, and the expression of speech disorders represented nasality.Because of malocclusion is a violation of the chewing process, which is why food is thoroughly crushed and poorly digested in the stomach.

sky defect causes the free transport of inhaled air from the nose to the mouth.The same is observed in the food when the food and the liquid can enter the nasal cavity.In addition to the liquid through the crevices can thrown into the eustachian tubes and sinuses with the occurrence of otitis media and sinusitis.

development of frequent respiratory illnesses due to the lack of air warming and clean it when passing through the upper respiratory tract.

Cleft lip and cleft palate formation

cases of cleft lip cleft palate parallel Quite often recorded.In addition to the anomalies of the upper lip marked other mutations in the structure of the front of the vehicle and to provide auditory function.

Cleft lip and palate are formed in the first trimester of pregnancy, when there is a tab of all organs.Anomalies of development observed when there are not enough tissue for normal construction of facial structures, or it heals properly.

Cleft lip is a cleft upper lip, visually reminiscent of the narrow opening in the skin.In some cases, the cleft region extends to the nasal bone and maxilla structure gums.

palatal defect or the so-called cleft palate may be involved in the pathological process of hard and soft parts.These anomalies are localized on one or both sides of the mouth.Due to the fact that the formation of heaven and lips marked separately, developmental abnormalities can be observed in conjunction with or separately from a cleft palate.

mutation cleft lip is considered the fourth prevalence of congenital anomalies.Causes of anomalies of the combined still not known, and therefore the prevention of mutations to prevent data does not exist.It is believed that genetic factors combined with environmental play a role in the formation of cleft lip with cleft part.Especially at risk for kids increases when there is a mutation from their parents or relatives.

In addition there is a risk when used by a pregnant woman some drugs.They increase the probability of abnormalities lip and palate development.Among these drugs is to provide antikolvusanty, tools, which include Accutane, as well as cytotoxic agents used to treat cancer tumors, such as methotrexate.Also, the appearance of mutations in the fetus can be caused by viruses or other chemicals.Quite often, these mutations can be one of the manifestations of any disease.

Cleft palate in children

In most cases, this congenital abnormality as cleft palate in children leads to the emergence of many problems.Cleft in the sky laid still in the process of fetal development, particularly in the first 3 months of pregnancy.Sometimes there is a mutation of cleft palate in combination with a cleft lip.

Based on the severity of the pathological process are 4 kinds of pathology.For example, a mutation may occur cleft of the soft palate, soft, combined with the hard part, as well as a complete cleft of both regions on the one hand or both.

the diagnosis of mutations doctor enough to make a visual inspection and assess the severity of the process, in particular respiratory disorder functions, speech and swallowing.Also with the help of instrumental methods of diagnosis the diagnosis is confirmed, and established hearing loss, abnormal skull structure, cross-passages of the nasal cavities and many other defects.

Approximately 75% of all cases of cleft palate in children is the only abnormality of development.However, its presence is still recommended to begin as soon as possible for treatment in order to avoid the appearance of dysfunction of other organs and systems.

cleft palate in newborns

Since that cleft palate in newborns is found not so rare, sometimes in combination with other defects, scientists around the world are trying to find those genes that cause the development of mutations.Currently known only 3 genes responsible for congenital malformations.However, all of the cases, they play a major role only 5% in the remaining 95% is marked in breaking other information carriers.

cleft palate from birth leads to many problems.Even in the process of labor is likely to aspirate baby amniotic fluid in the airways.In addition there are violations of most of the respiratory function and the act of sucking the breast, so that the baby behind in development and is not gaining enough weight for his age.The brain is experiencing hypoxia, ie, insufficient supply of oxygen as a result of defective respiration, resulting in a delay in both physical and mental development.Feeding of children is a special spoon, which is put on the bottle.

Cleft in the sky interferes with normal digestion, respiration, formation of speech, auditory function, and is also the reason for the decline of self-esteem of the child.Defective it is due to improper growth of teeth, which manifests an open nasality.

Toddlers, frequent respiratory infections, as the air enters the respiratory tract cold, not moist and not peeled.Furthermore the inhaled air freely escapes through the nose, and the food by the defect also falls into the nasal cavity which leads to frequent sinusitis.

cleft palate syndrome

formation of cracks in the soft and hard parts of the sky occurs during pregnancy, particularly during the first trimester.The anomaly of development may be the only pathology in a child or be a clinical sign of another disease.Thus, cleft palate can be observed in syndromes such as Stickler or Lois-Deats.

cleft palate syndrome causes disturbances in many bodily functions.So, through a slit in the sky food and fluid during feeding can freely penetrate into the nose with the development of sinusitis.Contact with food in the eustachian tube leads to the development of complications such as otitis media.

digestion process also violated since improper formation of occlusion due to improper tooth development.The kid needs special feeding as suckling in the neonatal period or the use of a conventional spoon does not allow the ingestion of food.Regarding

respiratory function, the act of inhaling does not provide a sufficient supply of oxygen to the lungs, resulting in hypoxia and cerebral complications.Also, do not moist, not peeled and warmed air directly enters the respiratory tract, which contributes to frequent inflammatory processes.

Despite the gravity of the situation, still with the help of surgery and further work speech therapists, ENT physician and a neurologist with a toddler it possible to restore the broken functions.

Diagnostics cleft palate

Taking into account the fact that the development of the anomaly formed in utero, when there is a foundation or development of organs and systems, early diagnosis of cleft palate is conducted during pregnancy, when the time reaches 14-16 weeks.Every pregnant woman when registering routine ultrasound passes, by which renders the fruit and existing anomalies of development (if any).Such a study is repeated periodically throughout pregnancy, as not all mutations can be detected in the first ultrasound.

addition ce of using the controlled process of growth and development of the fetus, which is also very important.However, not always a cleft palate can be diagnosed at this period, and its severity can be set only after the birth of a baby.

Accurate diagnosis is made after examination of the child throat doctor after birth.Often found combined pathology, except when there is a cleft palate cleft lip, but do not worry, because you can hide defects by surgery before the development of complications.

Treatment of cleft palate

has long been treated cleft palate done surgically, by which effectively closes cleft alveolar bone defect in the upper lip, and then held the upper palate plastic.However, in addition to the operation in the future need help speech therapists, otolaryngologists, pediatricians, neurologists and many other specialists to restore disturbed functions and to prevent the emergence of new complications.

Before surgery in the newborn is difficult act of suckling, so special obturator that avoid throwing food and liquid into the nasal passages are applied to them.

Of course, the operation requires a lot of experience of surgeons maxillofacial department, as the oral cavity of small size baby, making it difficult to conduct surgery.In this case, preference veloplastike when sewn soft palate.Such an operation is allowed to 8 months of age.

In some cases, treatment by surgery involves many operations.Depending on the surgical malformations gravity can be conducted after a year, and the age of 5-7 years.

Already after the first operation will be much significant improvement that will normalize the process of respiration and digestion.In the future, with the help of plastic eliminates visual defect that increases self-esteem the kid.However, after the surgery required treatment from a speech therapist, dentist, otolaryngologist to eliminate the complications and disturbed functions, which have been caused by this pathology.

Operation with cleft palate

In order to restore the normal structure of the alveolar bone and lip palate performed plastic.Surgery for cleft palate is performed not earlier than 6 months, together with the rehabilitation process takes about 5 years.Operations recommended in stages, when the first surgery provides the defect removal, which allows you to restore the respiratory and digestive function, and further operations are necessary for the correction of visual defects.

Timely treatment can prevent serious complications such as brain damage due to lack of oxygen to the tissues.After the operation you want to help a speech therapist, dentist, neurologist, an ENT doctor and other specialists to restore physiological function.

operation is performed by uranoplasty, particularly in Limberg procedure.This surgery is considered to be the most effective to date.If in addition to this pathology is present such defects as cleft lip, then the operation is performed by cheiloplasty.