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November 25, 2016 00:09

Allergic diseases and other hypersensitivity reactions : causes, symptoms, diagnosis , treatment of

Allergic diseases and other hypersensitivity reactions are the result of inadequate, overly pronounced, the immune response that does not meet the severity of the disease or infection.According to the classification

Jello and Cubs are 4 types of hypersensitivity reactions.vkpyuchayut hypersensitivity reactions are typically several types.

I-type (immediate type hypersensitivity) mediated by IgE.The antigen binds to IgE (which is attached to the tissue or basophils blood basophils), triggers the release of finished mediators (such as histamine, proteases, chemotactic factors), and the synthesis of other mediators (such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, platelet activating factor, IL).These mediators provide vasodilation;increased capillary permeability;lead to mucus hypersecretion, reducing smooth muscle tissue eosinophil infiltration, T-helper lymphocyte type 2 (Th2) and other cells involved in the inflammatory process.Type I reactions underlie atopic disorders (including allergic asthma, rhinitis, c

onjunctivitis), and the latex allergies and certain foods.

II type arise when the antibody binds to the cell or tissue allergens or haptens, coupled to cells or tissue.

antigen-antibody complex activates cytotoxic T lymphocytes, or macrophages, or the complement system, resulting in a cell or tissue damage (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity).Disorders related to type II reactions include acute rejection reaction in organ transplantation, Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Goodpasture's syndrome.

Ill type caused by inflammation in response to a circulating antigen-antibody complexes which are deposited in the tissue or vessel walls.These complexes can activate complement or bind to and activate certain immune cells that results in the release of inflammatory mediators.The extent of immune complex formation depending on the antibody and antigen ratio in the immune complex.First, there is a surplus of antigen in low antigen-antibody complexes, which do not activate complement.Later, when antibodies and antigens be balanced, the immune complexes become larger and tend to deposit in various tissues (glomerulus, blood vessels), which leads to systemic reactions.For reactions of type III include serum sickness, SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus), RA (rheumatoid arthritis), leukocytoclastic vasculitis, cryoglobulinemia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, certain types of glomerulonephritis.

IV type (delayed type hypersensitivity) mediated by T-lymphocytes.Allocate 4 subtypes based involved subpopulations of T lymphocytes: T-limofitsity helper type 1 (IVa), T-lymphocyte helper type 2 (IVb), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (IVc), T-lymphocytes secreting IL8(IVd).These cells are sensitized upon contact with a specific antigen, antigen activated after repeated exposure;they have a direct toxic effect on tissues or released by cytokines which activate eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages, neutrophils or killer cells, which depends on the type of reaction.For type IV reactions include contact dermatitis (such as poison ivy response), hypersensitivity pneumonitis, allograft rejection reaction, and many forms of tuberculosis drug hypersensitivity.

Estimated autoimmune diseases

probability

Violation

mechanism or symptom

highly probable

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

phagocytosis sensitized antibodies erythrocytes

autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

phagocytosis sensitized antibodies platelet

syndrome Goodpasture

antibodiesbasement membrane

Graves' disease

antibodies (stimulating) to TSH receptor

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

cell- and antibody-mediated cytotoxicity thyroid

insulin resistance

antibodies to insulin receptor

Myasthenia gravis

antibodies to acetylcholine receptors

Pemphigus

epidermal acantholytic antibodies

SLE

Circulatingor locally generalized immune complexes

Probable

andrenergic drug resistance (in some patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis)

antibodies to beta-adrenergic receptor

Bullous pemphigoid

IgG and complement components to the basement membrane

diabetes (some cases)

cell-mediated or antibodyantibodies to islet cells

Glomerulonephritis

antibodies or immune complexes in glomerular basement membrane

Idiopathic disease Hell-Dyson

antibodies or possibly cell-associations-Rowan adrenal cytotoxicity

Infertility (some cases)

sperm antibodies

Mixed connective tissue disease

antibodies to the extracted nuclear antigen (ribonucleoprotein)

Pernicious anemia

antibodies to parietal cells, microsomes, intrinsic factor

Polymyositis

non-histone antinuclear antibodies

RA

immune complexes in joints

Systemic sclerosis with antikollagenovymi antibodies

antibodies to the nucleus and nucleolus

syndrome Sjogren

Multiple tissue antibodies specific non-histone anti-centuries-B antibodies

Possible

Chronic active hepatitis

antibodies to smooth muscle cells

endocrine glands

specific tissue antibodies (in some cases)

Postinfarktnoe state kardiotomichesky syndrome

myocardial antibody

Primary biliary cirrhosis

mitochondrial antibodies

Vasculitis

lg and complement components in the vessel walls, the low level of serum component (in some cases)

Vitiligo

antibodies to melanocytes

Many other inflammatory, granulomatous, degenerative, and atopic disorders

no rational alternative explanations

urticaria, atopic dermatitis, asthma (some cases)

IgG and IgM to IgE

TSH - thyroid-stimulating hormone, RA - rheumatoid arthritis, SLE - systemic lupus erythematosus.