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November 19, 2016 00:14

South American hemorrhagic fever |Symptoms and treatment of the South American hemorrhagic fever

South American hemorrhagic fever (Argentine, Bolivian, Venezuelan) are distributed only in these regions, and pose a serious challenge to the local health authorities.In Argentina each year are diagnosed between 100 and 200 cases of hemorrhagic fevers.In recent years begun to use a specific vaccine to prevent Argentine hemorrhagic fever and marked fairly high effectiveness of vaccination.

incidence of Bolivian and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fevers slightly less than Argentina, recorded a few dozen cases annually.In 1990, Sabia virus was identified, described only a few cases of the disease caused by it and called the Brazilian hemorrhagic fever, the natural reservoir of the pathogen is still not completely understood.Human infection occurs in the same way as with Lassa fever.Epidemiological characteristics of South American hemorrhagic fevers are similar in principle to the characteristic of Lassa fever.

What causes South American hemorrhagic fevers?

Pathogenesis South American hemorrhagic fevers is p

oorly understood.Its main features are very similar to the pathogenetic mechanisms of Lassa fever (the role of FIG in the development of the disease, the primary viral infection of monocytes, activation of cytokines, the formation of multiple organ injuries, violation of vascular permeability due to endothelial damage, the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, toxic shock, collapse).The dependence of the severity of the infection by interferon-alpha levels in the serum of patients: with its significant increase to 6-12 days of illness the disease are fatal (at the opening of whether a significant blood supply is in the spleen, liver, bone marrow).

defeat of vessels in the South American hemorrhagic fever is less pronounced than in Lassa fever.

In most cases, the South American hemorrhagic fevers there is secondary bacterial infection to the development of pneumonia.Symptoms

South American hemorrhagic fever

The incubation period is 5 to 19 days (usually 7-12 days) with a parenteral transmission of infection, he is reduced to 2-6 days.Symptoms

South American hemorrhagic fever are very similar.

acute onset of the disease: the body temperature quickly rises to high numbers, myalgia developing various sites, especially the back muscles, general weakness.Patients often report symptoms of the South American hemorrhagic fever: a pain in the eyeballs, photophobia, epigastric pain, and constipation.dizziness occurs often, perhaps orthostatic collapse.

On examination, patients noted flushing of the face and neck, conjunctivitis, increased peripheral lymph nodes.Characteristic rash in the form of petechiae and small vesicles on the skin (often in the axillary regions) and on the mucous membranes.Hemorrhagic manifestations in the form of a petechial rash and bleeding (nasal, gastric, and others.) May be early clinical signs of the disease in the early days.There is a depression or CNS arousal.

course of the disease may be burdened the development of seizures (clonic convulsions) and coma, greatly complicates the prediction.

especially hard all the South American hemorrhagic fever occur in pregnant women.Diseases lead to miscarriages (high lethality) can be transmitted to the fetus infection.

The blood is often observed severe leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, increase in hematocrit, urine - proteinuria.

convalescence period may be delayed up to a few weeks, there is a long asthenovegetative syndrome (hypotension).Perhaps the loss of hair on the head.

lethality observed in 15-30% of cases, while the Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever - to50%.

Diagnostics South American hemorrhagic fever

Diagnostics South American hemorrhagic fever using ELISA (IgM), developed a PCR diagnostic.Perhaps the release of the virus from the blood to the first days of illness.

Treatment South American hemorrhagic fever

Held pathogenetic treatment of the South American hemorrhagic fever, aimed at correction of metabolic disorders (metabolic acidosis), and the restoration of circulating blood volume, use hemostatic agents.Displaying the appointment of antibacterial drugs with secondary bacterial infections.

The effectiveness of ribavirin in the South American hemorrhagic fever is not installed, used in the treatment of convalescent plasma.

how to prevent the South American hemorrhagic fever?

Events for all fevers are aimed at limiting the populations of certain species of rodents;specific prevention of the South American hemorrhagic fever is only developed in the Argentine hemorrhagic fever (live vaccine).