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September 27, 2016 23:01

Preventive aspects of baby food

significant problem of modern dietetics constitute preventive aspects of nutrition.Elements preventive focus power can be represented by the water enriched flour or salt nutrients such as iodine, fluorine or selenium in geochemical zones depleted of these substances.

Preventive measures in the regions with the most "soft" drinking water require a diet supplement of magnesium and calcium salts.Monitoring food provide iron, copper, folic and ascorbic acid necessary to prevention of anemia.Extensive preventive value confirmed for a set of antioxidant foods, dietary fiber, probiotics and prebiotics.However, particularly important in the early years of life the prevention of chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system - hypertension and atherosclerosis - for children from families where the parents or other close relatives have been cases of cardiovascular "catastrophe" (strokes or heart attacks) at a relatively young age.

Inclusion in prevention programs for cardiovascular disease oblige to change

the attitude to the fat component of the diet.An example may be a recommendation for such a restriction of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

fats in the diet of children over two years

  • share of fat up to 3 years - 35%, after - 30%.
  • fatty acid ratio - polyunsaturated: monounsaturated: saturated = 1: 1: 1.
  • total amount of cholesterol per day - up to 200 mg.
  • energy from protein - 12-15%.
  • energy from carbohydrates - 55-58%.

In this mode, the fat is needed to ensure a permanent and thoroughly be monitoring children's growth, since for many of the above scheme may create problems of energy supply.Along with fat restrictions so children need to increase the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids PTG group form providing calcium, magnesium, folic acid and pyridoxine.

principles approach to a balanced diet for children older than one year

Ensuring multicomponent balanced diet after a year of not less responsibly than in the diet of infants and nutrition during pregnancy.This gives rise to specific difficulties inherent in the increasing autonomy of behavior and the adoption of a child or a teenager making.At the same time gradually increase the possibility of expanding the range of products of animal and vegetable origin, allowing to create an approximation to multisbalansirovannomu diet.In ordinary life, unrealistic frequent use of complex forms of registration and computer analysis of the diet, so a variety of pediatric schools develop simple rules for grouping of foods due to their role - carriers of a group of nutrients.As an example, several variants of such grouping.

The principles of universal children's diet ( "prudent" food)

  • Milk - 600-800 ml.
  • Meat, fish, poultry - 1 serving a day (5-6 per week).
  • liver - 1 serving per week.
  • Egg - 1-4 times a week.
  • raw vegetables - 1 serving per day.
  • Vegetables, colored - 1 serving per day.
  • fresh fruit (juice) - 2-3 servings per day.
  • Bread and cereals.As appetite and fatness.

Such an approach is authorized to use and our recommendations.According to them, the total daily energetic "srednenormalnogo" diet is 1000 + 100n (kcal), body weight daily food table 1200 + 100n (g or ml, except for tea and drinks; n - the number of years a child).The volume of daily consumer products for children older than 2 years can be calculated.

Protein Group:

  • lean meat, poultry, offal (liver, kidneys) from 3 years - 1-2 times a week, eggs, legumes, in combination with the alternation.Total 100+ 10n.

Fish fats and fish origin:

  • trout, mackerel, lake salmon, sardines, herring, salted for 20-70 grams depending on the age, 3-4 times a week, and (or) (on the advice of a pediatrician), fish oil2 g (after a year) to 7.5 g in school age.

Vegetable fats:

  • sunflower, olive, linseed, rapeseed oil, etc., preferably in salads and in combination..Total of 1-2 g per year of life.

Dairy products:

  • milk, kefir, yogurt 600-700 ml / day at any age, of which 50-200 ml of the product with probiotics + curd cheese 50-100 g + 15-25 of

different fruits and vegetables (except potatoes) 4-5 different colors:

  • of the vegetables and fruits in raw form, in part natural unsweetened juices.The total amount of vegetables, fruits and juices to 40P.

energy Group:

  • potatoes, a variety of cereals, pasta, bread and pastries - the main energy "ration", dosed depending on physical activity and nutrition status of the child in the range of 150-200 g young children up to 1000-1500 g of ready meals for the "sport" of a teenager.

«ration goodies" or "premium»:

  • used for the promotion of the child until the end of the main meals and 3-4 in minimal quantities.It is desirable to minimize the use of sweets and increasingly involve fresh fruit and juices (5th group of basic products), black (dark chocolate), honey (in the absence of them allergies), home-made with a minimal amount of sugar on the basis of the berries, especially cranberries, cranberries,blueberry, black currant.Occasionally - ice cream.

Drinks:

  • other than milk and juices, children can drink various teas (green and black), prepared in purified tap water or bottled carbonated water permitted for baby food.

According to the doctor:

  • «fear" or a combination of multivitamin and multimineral multivitamin supplementation in coated tablets or syrups for children.

discussing various aspects of the milk supply over the year children must be borne in mind that, as in the first year of life, in the next age periods provision of milk and dairy products is especially critical due to the very high demand for children and adolescents in digestible calcium.This is discussed in the chapter on the physiology of bone tissue.However, it is highly advisable to use along with whole milk or partially instead of baby food produced by industry "substitute cow's milk."This can provide additional revenue and micronutrient salts and sodium restriction.Leading British nutritionist Brian Wharton leads the comparison of composition and even the cost of the different types of milk.Especially promising replacement of the whole cow's milk (1-2 cups) in the baby food mixture such as Follow-up, Enfamil-Unior and others.

Different forms of milk in baby food.Components in 100 ml of milk (by W. Wharton, 1990)

Indicators

Mixtures

Follow-up

Cow's milk

whole

Cow's milk semi obezzhi-actual measured

Cow's milk

obezzhi-actual measured

energy kcal

67-70

65-67

67

48

34

protein g

1,5-1,9

2,0-2,9

3,4

3,4

34

Vitamin P, g

1,0

1,1-1,2

0,02

0,02

002

Iron mg

0,4-0,7

0,7-1,2

0,05

0,05

0,05 -

Saturated fats, g

1,0-1,9

1,2

2,5

1,1

-

Sodium mmol

0,6-1,1

1,3-1,5

2,2

2,2

2,2

Price (pence)

7

7

6

6

5

Age Applicable

from birth

from 6 months

with 1 year

with 2 years

with 5 years

Widespread malnutrition among Russian children, predominantly qualitative deficiencies withsalt deficiency of vitamins and minerals, making it extremely important all approaches to improving diet balanced.In all cases where the range and quality of the food can not solve this problem, ie. E. For a very large part of the children, you must use artificial products such as the already mentioned milk formula or nutraceuticals sapplementov with a wide range of micronutrients.There are real possibilities of combining milk supply with separately issued by sapplementami.An example would be recommended by the Institute of Nutrition of whole milk enriched domestic vitamin complex "Golden Ball".For enrichment micronutrient products use vitamin and mineral mixtures (premixes), industrial production ( "Valetek" "Eleven," "Viten", "Komivit" and others.).Sapplementy can be tableted, presented in a form-Pops solutions and so on. D. Pediatrician, a crucial problem of choosing one or the other diet correction means should behave like dietofarmakolog and the challenges and directions necessary supplementation and the amount sapplementa or nutraceutical necessary for the childor a group of children.Should be wary of multiple overdose of any vitamin, mineral or trace element, not to forget about the toxicity of some of them (vitamins A and D, large doses of iron, copper, manganese, iodine and so on. D.).

Adaptation of the child to the regular flow of large doses of certain vitamins (ascorbic acid) can lead to the formation of addiction and severe hypovitaminosis in the transition to the normal maintenance of this vitamin.Nevertheless, the demand for modern nutrition multicomponent balance must be carried out.This is one of the real ways to improve the health and quality of children's development, and hence the ways to a better future for them.Confirmation of this came unexpectedly in a recent World Bank report (1998).Financiers participating in nutrition programs investments, concluded that "no other technology does not provide such opportunities to improve the health of people in such a low price and in such a short time."